Behaviour is satellite responses to its environment generated by our social brain – the system which we consider as mind. Mind endeavour over persuasion on which behaviour develops. Our characters are responses of some hormones produce in the cell of different gland. The shift in concentration of hormones leads to change in character.
This article reviews various effects of hormones on our physiological status and hence behavioural responses. All the body hormones produced by body cell are actually controlled and managed by the genes present in the cell. As the brain (hypothalamus) sense any character or any situation it sends the response to various hormone glands and the glands synthesis the protein as per the command of active gene.
Depending upon the circumstances behavioural response shifts vary wisely. As the behaviour is controlled by the hormones, the genes which are modulating hormones synthesis must be switching off and on as per response from brain. Specific hormone for the specific task of behaviour is produced under the command of brain. We have tried to establish a relationship between behaviour and genes so that a new study should carry out in the motive to control the gene activity by the mode of behaviour psychology. The word Acharangenetics can be used to express the relation of behaviour psychology and genes. The word Acharangenetics is a compound word, form by combination of two words – Acharan Hindi origin word meaning behaviour and the second word is genetics – the study of heredity.
The strength of any construction is understood by its pillars which are multidisciplinary in nature. To hold its existence one has to focus on its sub fundamental phenomenon, that is, behaviour. According to psychology, behaviour comprises of satellite responses to its environment generated by our social brain (Frith, C. D., 2007) – the system which we consider as mind. The conscious exercise of faculty and thought are considered very important for development of mind. Mind endeavour over persuasion on which behaviour develops. Psychological practice is very commonly performed by psychologist in order to provide counselling to a person living life with some non-productive state of mind (Strong et al., 1992).
Hence, counselling can help a person to generate positive psychology, and stabilize the social life of a person with any social psychological disturbance (Harris et al., 2007). Our characters are responses of some hormones produce in the cell of different gland. The shift in concentration of hormones leads to change in character. This article reviews various effects of hormones on our physiological status and hence behavioural responses. Body hormones produced by body cell are actually controlled and managed by the genes present in the cell. As the brain (hypothalamus) sense any character or any situation it sends the response to various hormone glands (Knobil, et al., 1980; Schally, et al., 1973) and the glands synthesis the protein as per the command of active gene.
Depending upon the circumstances behavioural response shifts vary wisely. As the behaviour is controlled by the hormones, the genes which are modulating hormones synthesis must be switching off and on as per response from brain. Specific hormone for the specific task of behaviour is producd as per program under the command of brain. We have tried to establish a relationship between behaviour and genes so that a new study should carry out in the motive to control the gene activity by the mode of behaviour psychology.
Counselling psychology is very much practice in the field of academic, in the field of sports for motivating sportsman and for helping the one who is trying to come back after injury (Webster et al., 2008) or in the area of medical for strengthening the depress state of the patients suffering from chronic diseases like cancer (Watson et al.,1988; Sheard, T., & Maguire, P., 1999), diabetes (Snoek et al., 2002) or in any chronic diseases (Karademas et al., 2009) that has harassed the health as well as the mental stability of patients. Moreover, it is widely used in people who are handling life defeat mentality (Silbert et al., 1991). They are found to be very much effective in uplifting the level of psyche.
In psychology, human nature and motivation have been discussed very extensively. Freud believed that behind every human activity there is the instinctual drive that works as a motivating factor that bring upon types of human behaviour. Psychology is a science of behaviour that is observable. It also means an objective science that depends on the experimental and observable data. All human action and behaviour are the outcome of the physiological and neurological reaction in the human body. This fact also reveals that human behaviours are nothing more than the way man responses to stimuli that come from the environment.
Behaviourists accept determinism in their version of psychology. They deem that every human response can be predicted in relation to the type of stimulus that triggers man’s responses. Some of our motives to act are biological, while others have personal and social origins. We are motivated to seek food, water, and sex, but our behaviour is also influenced by social approval, acceptance, the need to achieve, and the motivation to take or to avoid risks, to name a few (Morsella, Bargh, & Gollwitzer, 2009).
Furthermore, during motivation our body gene regulation work on activation of genes that is good in handling stress. And there are some genes that are responsible for the production of dopamine – a motivation molecule, that provides the drive and focus you need to accomplish your tasks in the most productive way. This hormone is primarily involved with the attention span, focus and motivation. It is a neurohormone that is released by the hypothalamus. Lack of dopamine in the body is associated with symptoms like fatigue, lack of focus, difficulty in concentrating, forgetfulness, insomnia and lack of motivation.
When dopamine isn’t regulated properly, it can contribute to a dysfunctional pursuit of good feelings, such as occurs in addictions, or lead to a hyperactive state like Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These conditions are generally associated with an increased risk of early death, rather than longevity, but the latest study suggests that “risk” genes for certain problems in some environments may be beneficial in other situations.
In humans, dopamine neurotransmission is influenced by functional polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter (DAT-1) and catechol-Omethyl transferase (COMT) genes. The COMT and DAT-1 genes was found in the ventral striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex during reward anticipation and in thelateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices as well as in the mid-brain at the time of reward delivery, with carriers of the DAT-1-9 repeat allele and COMT met/met allele exhibiting the highest activation, presumably reflecting functional change consequent to higher synaptic dopamine availability.
Types of Motivation
The origin of motivation can be felt as either internal as push motivation or external as pull motivation. Push motivation is depicted in terms of biological variables arising in a person’s nervous system and mind psychological variables that represent attributes of a person’s mind, such as psychological needs. A person has the capability to channelize its motivation and stress hormones concentration by the mode of imagination. And if a person thought is responsible for its hormone concentration, then the person thought or imagination may affect an individual gene regulation. And this gene regulation is a background of push motivation.
Pull motivation is understood in terms of environmental variables that describe external sources of motivation, like incentives or goals. Our internal sources of motivation interact with external sources to direct behaviour (Deckers, 2014). Moreover, it may happen that this external effort implants an idea in a person which allows creating a thought process rising to an imagination.
Furthermore, this imagination leads to affect the body serum metabolite concentration and signalling metabolite modulates the process of gene regulation and gene expression. Hence, it will lead to regulation to the activity of stress handling and risk handling genes (Yashin, et al., 2012). And this leads to the production of hormones such as dopamine, oxytocinetc that are responsible to manage the level of external motivation or push motivation. This system can be observed in the field of extensive sports like boxing and rugby, where coach try to motivate the energy and skills of the player by mentoring with either using sound modulation or by some moral thought related to winning or losing.
Our evolutionary history also explains aspects of motivated behaviour, and our individual personal histories shed light on how our lifelong experiences shape our motives and determine the utility of goals and incentives.
Physiological needs like hunger, thirst, sex or some desire on the basis needs are also the biological beginnings that eventually manifest themselves as a psychological drive in a person’s subjective awareness. These biological events become psychological motives. It is important to distinguish the physiological need from the psychological drive it creates because only the later has motivational properties.
The drive theory of motivation tells us that physiological needs originate in our bodies. As our physiological system attempts to maintain health, it registers in our brain a psychological drive to satisfy a physiological craving and motivates us to bring the system from deficiency toward homeostasis (Reeve, 2018). Likewise, the person who motivates themselves for the personal fitness must be channelizing their serum hormones effect. This desire might be helping them to initiate a program of self-caring; a necessity in order to keep up with personal health. As people are not under control for good diet or healthy life style; personal motivation is necessary. The biological need turns into a psychological motive when the drive to satisfy it interferes with our normal functioning by increasing tension until the need is satisfied.
Social Interaction Affects Behaviour and Health Status
Behavioural feature in relation to social interaction has performed wonders in the field of medical science. Some aspects are visible through the lenses of science but some are the trades of invisible energy. Placebo effect is among that invisible behavioural energy which has stuns the eyes of many thinkers. As per the Stimulus substitution models posit that placebo responses are due to pairings of conditional and unconditional stimuli (Montgomery et al., 1997). This Condition is either created by people or may be a natural place. The placebo effect has a very vital consequence on the synthesis of metabolites in body and in functioning of hormonal glands. Placebo effect gives rise in endorphin release (Levine et al., 1978) and drop down the symptoms of anxiety (Sternbach et al., 1968.), classical conditioning (Wickramasekera et al., 1980), and response expectancy (Kirsch, et al., 1985; Kirsch et al., 1990.).
However, Montgomery and Kirsch (1996) described data that are hard to reconcile with the hypothesis that placebo responses are mediated by such global mechanisms as anxiety reduction or the release of endogenous opioids. It has been found that it can be used as a local anaesthetic.
Genetics states that, what we express as a character, whether its behaviour or phenotype it is just a pre-programmed stimulus of genes on its switching circumstances. And the circumstances could be behavioural or environmental. The change may arise sooner or later, depends on the degree of gene regulation.
On the other hand, the arising of any action or the way someone conduct them self in response to others action is judge during psychological practice. It has been observed that the change in mood, action and development of thought triggers the secretion of different metabolite, by different gland present in different parts of brain and body. The effect of any action could be seen all over the body, such as; at the time of anger the whole body share the heat arise from anger; at the stage of happiness we can feel comfort and energetic and at the stage of meditation we can feel peace. These kicks off of anger can take place by others behavioural activity but its onset initiates the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline cortisol, which anger are causing hormones. Similarly, the state of happiness is the result of production of endorphins, dopamine and serotonin. Likewise, the action of meditation kicks off the production of all good hormones required by the body to be at peace.
The effect of these hormones on whole body can only be seen if these hormones are well distributed in the body cell. Whenever any hormone enters into cell it creates a signalling response which moves from cell cytoplasm to the nucleus. And nucleus is the place where the key genetic material which codes for the behaviour of cell – the structural unit of organism.
Environment Affecting Behaviour
Psychology and metabolism are mutually related to each other. Any change in psych will trigger the synthesis of different hormones or metabolite or it’s responsible for the alteration in concentration of metabolite or hormones. And in normal condition of outer environment, social environment and diet intake, the physiological status of a person is found to be normal. Hence, the metabolite concentration is also balanced. As soon as there is any change in the environment (social/environmental) of a person, metabolite and hormonal response changes. Hence there are vital changes in person behaviour or in its health status. There is certain situation where organism has to behave against their natural character. This situation is either created by the social environment or unpredictably. Table 1 listed some of the real life situation and various responses of body metabolism
Moreover, there are situation which are either created or present naturally and are responsible for generating some rare characters in organism. As in a situation for survival some people develop very high spirit to stay alive and start working against their nature. They are found to handle stress condition with an attitude of solving it and bring out anything good as per the things available. This can be the situation of specific activation of stress handling genes by the mode of gene regulation (Yashin, et al., 2012). This regulation tends to modulate behaviour in an organism as presented in Table 2. Hence, such people are found to be having great surviving skills and a behaviour of handling tough situation.
The character which is in phenotype form or specific social behaviour is actually a command program of the genes present in our DNA. The happening of any behaviour and expression is basically the activity of genes. Hence, learning, expression or behaving could be on and off of genes activity. This on and off of genes is understand by the terminology of gene regulation Likewise, the metabolite or hormones are actually functional protein which produces by taking the reference from the coded information, by various genes in DNA of an organism. Furthermore, the behaviour of person is more likely influenced by the metabolite and hormones. Hence human behaviour is more likely to be as concentration of different biochemical or it’s just based on switching on or switching off of different genes responsible for different character which are control by production of functional protein. Hence, whenever there is activation of any gene there is activation of a specific function which contributes in any biochemical reaction throughout the body. There are numerous biochemical reactions going on in the body each actually channelize by the metabolic protein produce by the activation of genes of an organism. Apparently, the origin of basic behaviour character is trigger by genes e.g. in infant we can observe some facial expression and action Infants are not taught about behaviour, some of them are basically inherited by birth which are trigger by genes.
Moreover, if any human psychological disorder generated either by environmental or social stress are responsible for the alteration of functional protein such as hormones and metabolites. Functional protein is only produce by the activation of genes. In a nutshell genes are responsible for behaviour psychology but behaviour psychology also holds the capacity to influence the activity of genes. Therefore, behaviour psychology at its best possible organised way may have the efficiency to govern and channelizes the activity of genes. Hence, after recognising the complete relation between psychology and genes by the connection of metabolism we can elaborate new area of study either in the field of genetic engineering or in the field of behaviour psychology. Acharangenetics (Acharan + genetics) word can be used to express the relation of behaviour psychology and genes. The word Acharangenetics is a compound word, form by combination of two words – Acharan – a Hindi origin word meaning behaviour and the second word is genetics which is the study of heredity.
Research Questions: The research questions are:
> Can we effect gene regulation by the mode of behaviour psychology?
> Can we use behaviour psychology as a genetic regulation tool?
> As genes activation affect the behaviour and create a person personality characters, can it happen that moulding someone’s character results in gene regulation?
Answers to the Question
The behaviour of a person is the expression of genes. The change in behaviour by the action of word may generate such hormones which leads to the expression of different genes in the individual which codes for such protein that either alter or generate new character in an individual. Hence, the transformation of human behaviour from a child to a mature person could be response of expression of genes by certain behavioural activities. A talk between two people regarding certain mutual adjustment in behaviour could be another example of gene expression of desired characters by using concept of mutual understanding of requirements. Hence, psychology can be used as a tool for expression of specific genetic traits. If social interaction and genes both affect metabolism, then they might be interacting each other. Metabolic pathway is a connective link in many biological processes therefore; it may happen that there might be a relation between genetics and behavioural psychology. If behaviour psychology can affect genes activity, then we can use it as a tool for expression of specific genetic traits. Any effect to a person during social interaction create certain level of change in its hormones or functional protein concentration lifting the mood or results in stress conditions.
*About the authors: Rajan Keshri, Harpreet Kaur and Dr Gursharan Singh Kainth, Guru Arjan Dev Institute of Development Studies
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Table 1: – Hormone Impact on Behaviour and Body at Different Stress Situation.
|S.No||Changes in social/ physiological/ habitat environment||Release of hormones||Effect on body||Effects on behaviour|
|1.||Accidental emergency||Adrenaline catecholamines, norepinephrine epinephrineestrogen, testosterone, cortisol, dopamine serotonin (Walter et al., 1915)||modulating visceral functions (Lieberman, et al., 2009) (Malenka, et al., 2009); enhancing output of the heart, blood flow to muscles,blood sugar level and pupil dilation response. (Bell et al., 2009) (Khurana, et al., 2008)||The crumbles, hyper arousal, and the acute stress response (Cannon, et al., 1916). It also affect that how organisms react to stress.|
|2.||Sports||Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (natural only) ( Wood, et al., 2012)||Testosterone induces athletic performance, not only through its long-term anabolic actions, but also through fast impressions on behaviour. Higher synthesis of endogenous testosterone in females due to inborn disorders of sexual development (DSD) may carry a competitive advantage (Wood, et al., 2012).||act on specific substrates in the brain to rise up the aggression and motivation for competition (Gleason, et al., 2009)|
|3.||Fight||Testosterone, Adrenaline Serotonin||Testosterone may induce muscular responses. Adrenaline gives a shock or extra energy either to fight against the situation or to run away from the situation. (Bell et al., 2009) (Khurana, et al., 2008)||Emotion studied in relation to adrenaline is fear (Mezzacappa, et al., 1999). Regulate respiration (Lieberman et al., 2013; Malenka, et al., 2009); increasing output of the heart, blood flow to muscles, blood sugar level and pupil dilation response (Bell et al., 2009; Khurana, et al., 2008).|
|4.||Bullying||Metabolite Chemical imbalance; Cortisol (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016)||Physical and psychological stressors being the target of bullying, triggers the stress system cantered on the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis (Dallmanet al., 2015). The importance of HPA and other hormones is to initiate adaptation and survival, but chronically lifted hormones can induce problems. Stress has ubiquitous effects on physiology and the brain, changes concentration of many hormones and other biomarkers, and hence affects behaviour. Hence, general understanding of stress during early adolescence can provide perceptivity into the bearing effects of bullying.||It creates somatic disturbances, sleep difficulties, anxiety, low confidence, self-respect and headaches. Some genes have been recognised as moderators of the exposure to a toxic stressor such as health outcomes and child maltreatment which results indepression (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016)|
|5.||Believe system||Oxytocin||Individual differences at the genetic level are among one factor that can control the psychological effects of intranasal oxytocin organization. This kind of effects have been presented for the most commonly studied polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR rs53576(Marsh et al., 2012) (Feng, et al., 2015) It take part is various body function such as milk ejection reflex (Wagner, el al., 2006), Oxytocin is found very crucial in the embryonal development of the heart by promoting cardiomyocyte differentiation (Paquin, et al., 2002.) uterine contraction which is very important for cervical dilation before birth||Oxytocin system, severelytake part in in social bonding, may also impinge on spirituality, this let us to belief in a meaningful life spread with a sense of connection to a Divine Power or to the world. It also promotes participants’ experience of specific positive emotions at the time of meditation.|
|6.||Fear||Adrenaline||Too much adrenaline results sexual and nesting behaviour, stress obesity, struggle in breathing, high blood pressure. Very rarely, overproduction of adrenaline/noradrenaline may be caused by an adrenal tumour called pheochromocytoma or a paraganglioma (Palmblad, J., Levi, L., Burger, A., Melander, A., Westgren, U., Von Schenck, H. and Skude, G., 1977).||Increase heart rate, stress, and respiration, hyperaldosteronism, Overproduction of androgens is also very rare but may result in excessive hair growth and menstrual period disturbances.|
Table 2: – Some Examples of Hormones and Their Effects on Human Body and Behaviour.
|Hormones||Effects on body||Gene responsible for production.||Effect on Behaviour||Sites for synthesis|
|Oxytocin||This hormone helps in regulating awide variety of physiologic processes, which includes behaviour of eating and metabolism. In rodents and nonhuman primates, chronic oxytocin organization leads to affirmed weight reduction by decreasing food intake, enhancing energy expenditure and inducing lipolysis. Oxytocin might give rise to abetter glucose homeostasis, independently of its effects on weight(Lawson et al., 2017).||OXT gene (“OXT gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=OXT>)||Moreover this hormone behave as a chemical messenger and has been expressed to be crucial in human behaviour which includes recognition, trust, anxiety sexual arousal, and infant bonding , and it’s also called as love hormone.||Bloodstream by posterior pituitary gland|
|Serotonin||Chemically it’s also termed as 5‐Hydroxytryptamine. It is a biogenic amine most recognised for its function as a neurotransmitter. By performing advance research serotonin has been found to be regulating cerebral vascular tone, peripheral vascular tone gastrointestinal motility and platelet function and has been concerned in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, migraine, emesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and pulmonary and systemic hypertension. ( Mohammad‐Zadeh et al., 2008)||SLC6A4 (“SLC6A4 Gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=SLC6A4 >||serotonin shapes social behaviour by switching social tastes in the positive direction, increasing the value people place on others’ outcomes. ( Siegel, et al., 2013)||Its synthesis take place in the intestines and in some part of the brain. It is also found in the blood platelets and insome parts of the central nervous system (CNS)|
|Dopamine||Psycho pharmacological studies propose a broad variety of behavioural functions for uprising midbrain dopaminergic systems. Electrophysiological and neurochemical studies on particular behavioural tasks show a more limited spectrum of dopamine-mediated alteration. Substantial increases in dopamine-mediated activity, as measured by electrophysiology or voltammetry, are related to rewards and reward-predicting stimuli. A somewhat slower, distinct electrophysiological response encodes the uncertainty associated with rewards. Aversive events produce different, mostly slower, electrophysiological dopamine responses that consist predominantly of depressions. Furthermore, more modest dopamine concentration fluctuations, in relation to movement and punishment, are seen at 200–18 000 times longer time courses using voltammetry and micro dialysis in vivo. Employing these reactions, dopamine neurotransmission provides differential and heterogeneous information to subcortical and cortical brain structures about essential outcome components for approach behavior, learning and economic decision-making.( Schultz, et al., 2007)||DRD2 (“DRD2 Gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database. 1996-2020 <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=DRD2>)||Dopamine is found to be regulating the fundamental interaction between striatal and cortical sight that are involved in behavioural modulation. Dopamine behaves in order to promote stimulus which promotes responding for conditioned or reward-related stimuli by integrative actions at multiple forebrain sites. (Jentsch, et al., 2000)||The synthesis of Dopamine is carried out in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.|
|Cortisol||Increase carbohydrate metabolism; mediate stress response||ACTC1 Gene(1 of 1468)(“ACTC1 Gene”.genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/Search/Keyword?startPage=18&queryString=cortisol&pageSize=25>)||Male aggressive antisocial behaviour called as stress hormone||Adrenal gland in the zona fasciculata, the second of three layers comprising the adrenal cortex|
|Estradiol||Uterine and other female tissue development; regulate sexual motivation and performance in female and male||CYP19A1 ESR1 gene (“ESR1 gene”,. ghr.nlm.nih.gov. U.S National Library of Medicine.1996-2020.< https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/ESR1>||Behaviour that are closely linked with aggression including sexual behaviour, communication and learning and memory .Change in mood during girls puberty. (Balzer, et al.,2015)||The granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and the corpora lutea|
|Testosterones||Enhances sperm production and male secondary sexual characteristics; induces sexual motivation and behaviour, typically by being converted to estradiol||AR Gene (“AR Gene”. genecards.org. Genecard the human gene database.1996-2020.< https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=AR>||It helps to spark competitiveness and boost self- esteem||In small quantity produced by adrenal gland both in males and females. Leydig cells in testes in men and by the ovaries in women.|
|Androgen||Androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) are the male sex hormones demanded by body for maturation of the male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics (MacLean et al., 1993).||AR Gene (“AR Gene”. genecards.org. Genecard the human gene database.1996-2020.< https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=AR>||Particularly androgens determine sexual differentiation of the body, and to the brain and the behaviour. These involve the sexual orientation, gender identity, childhood play and personality characteristics, like aggression and empathy.( Hines, et al., (2008).||These are synthesized in the male testes, the female ovaries, and the adrenal glands.|
|Progesterone||It has crucial role in effecting protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It induces deposition of fatin the body parts but has catabolic consequences on protein metabolism. (Kalkhoff et al., 1982). Progesterone acts as an important agent in the sexuality pregnancy and menstrual cycle. It also act in dysmenorrhea, postpartum disorders and premenstrual syndrome. ( Glick, et al., 1981)||PGR Gene “PGR Gene”. genecards.org. Genecard the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene =PGR>)||Oral contraceptives of progesteroneappear to strikebehaviour and mood, in some women without pre-existing psychiatric illness, sometimes causingloss of libidoand depression. When used as psychotropic agents, they can have mood-stabilizing effects and relieve premenstrual syndrome (Glick, et al., 1981).||Synthesis of progesterone takes place inside the ovaries(corpus luteum), adrenal glands and placenta.|
|Thyroxine||Increase oxidation rate in tissue and affects neural development||THRB Gene (“THRB Gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=THRB>)||Mood swings, aggressiveness, sadness, irritability||Secreted into bloodstream by thyroid gland|
|Prolactin||Many actions related to reproduction, water balance and behaviour associates with parental care||PRLR Gene (“PRLR Gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=PRLR>)||Responsible for maternal behaviour and decrease the level of sex hormones||Lactotrophs cells in the pituitary gland produce prolactin where it is stored and then released into the bloodstream|
|Vasopressin||Increase water reabsorption in kidney and affects learning and memories||AVP Gene (“AVP Gene”. genecards.org. Gene card the human gene database.1996-2020. <https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/ carddisp.pl?gene=AVP>)||Play a role in social behaviour, sexual motivation and pair bonding and maternal responses to stress||Peripheral blood from secretion of posterior pituitary gland|