ISSN 2330-717X

UN Security Council Considers Eritrea A Threat To Peace – Analysis

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By Martin Plaut and Mirjam van Reisen*

The UN Security Council has concluded that the Eritrean regime remains a serious threat to peace in the Horn of Africa and the region as a whole. In a resolution adopted on October 23, the Council expressed concern at the evidence provided by UN experts who accused President Isaias Afewerki of organising “ongoing Eritrean support for certain regional armed groups.” The Security Council went on to re-affirm its arms embargo against the Eritrean government.

Behind these bland phrases lies a catalogue of evidence carefully assembled by experts of the UN Monitoring Group. They explain in graphic detail how the regime operates: It supports rebel movements in neighbouring Ethiopia and Djibouti, something that has been known for quite some time. What is new is that – cynically enough – Eritrea is now embroiled in the Yemeni civil war in return for the Saudi and UAE financial support.

The backing of the Houthi rebellion in Yemen is indeed the most striking new finding. The monitors state that they have “received credible and persuasive testimony from multiple sources and independent reports indicating that Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have established a military presence in Eritrea as part of the military campaign against the Houthi rebels in Yemen and may be offering Eritrea compensation for allowing its territory and possibly its troops to be used as part of the Arab coalition-led war effort”.

Experts say that this deal was done after Djibouti rejected a similar arrangement with the Saudis and their allies. The UAE are said to have struck a separate deal to use the Eritrean port of Assab for the next 30 years. Situated just 60 km from the Yemeni coast, it has lain idle since Eritrea’s war with Ethiopia (May 1998 to June 2000) – a conflict that sealed the borders between the two countries.

It is not hard to imagine what Eritrea might do with the funds from its new Arab allies, since the regime has been keen to purchase weapons. The UN monitors report that a ship – the Shaker 1 – secretly docked at the Eritrean port of Massawa in January 2015. On board were Sudanese heavy weapons, apparently en route to arms fair in Abu Dhabi.

Whether they ever reached their destination is a moot point. What were described as eight ‘empty containers’ were offloaded at Massawa. The monitors say they have evidence that the containers were full, not empty, as claimed. It is likely that the howitzers and rocket launchers provided by the Military Industry Corporation of the Sudan were offloaded at the time. If so, this was in clear violation of the UN arms embargo against Eritrea.

Serious as these violations are, they pale into insignificance beside the evidence of the ongoing Eritrean backing of armed groups attempting to overthrow neighboring governments. These operations are co-ordinated by the head of Eritrean intelligence, Brigadier General Abraha Kassa, “a long-time associate of the President” – as the UN report puts it.

These movements include a newly formed front of Ethiopian rebel organisations, whose unity was “facilitated” by the Eritrean government. The Eritreans are also said to provide support to Afar rebels operating in Djibouti. Eritrean officials were confronted with this allegation, but they failed to respond.

Lack of financial transparency

These are exactly the kind of operations the Security Council has repeatedly demanded that Eritrea brings to an end. One of the roles of the monitors is to try to ensure that finances are not diverted by the regime to destabilise the region. This has been difficult to achieve, since the Eritrean government refuses experts all access to the country.

Even when senior Eritrean officials, including a senior political adviser to the President of Eritrea, Yemane Gebreab, meet with the UN’s appointed monitors, their promises of assistance prove worthless. The report notes that the Government continues not to disclose its budget appropriations and the country’s budget is not publicly available. UN monitors have yet to receive the official data for the past three years, promised at a meeting in Cairo in February 2014.

Given what is termed as “lack of financial transparency” the UN experts explain their concerns about reports that the European Union is considering a substantial increase in aid to Eritrea. The monitors call for “due diligence, monitoring and full oversight of the dispersal of large amounts of aid to Eritrea” since there is otherwise every risk that these would be used to fund rebellions across the region.

According to the UN, 5000 refugees leave Eritrea each month. Eritrean refugees are the second largest group of refugees entering Europe over the Mediterranean route.

In recent months the EU has been preparing a 200 million Euro bilateral aid package and a 40 million Euro package to be signed in a framework of collaboration to curb migration and human trafficking. Given the lack of financial transparency, it is difficult to understand how EU officials can possibly monitor the disbursal of funds.

Eritrea unilaterally ended aid relations in 2011 after the EU expressed grave concern over human rights violations in the country. At present, the EU is keen to encourage reforms in Eritrea by providing aid. It aims at tackling the root cause of the exodus of refugees by encouraging development.

Observers are however sceptical and point to the absence of any official government budget or budgetary procedures in Eritrea, the absence of democratic institutions, severe human rights violations as well as the regime’s role in destabilising the region.

There has been speculation that Eritrea wants to attract aid, since it requires foreign exchange to modernise its military. It has been pointed out that manipulating the exchange rate of the national currency, the Nakfa, would allow Eritrea to diveert aid funds to other priorities.

Increased aid to Eritrea may well contribute to undermining peace in the region and therefore increase the number of refugees. In the light of this it is significant that the newly imposed UN sanctions specifically refer to ‘public finance’ as an area requiring careful scrutiny.

Federica Mogherini, the EU’s senior diplomat, warned Eritrea last month (October) to respect human rights and urged the country to engage in deep reforms. The question is whether such diplomatic warnings will suffice.

The UN Monitoring Report provides significant insights into Eritrea’s financial organisation as well as its determination to perpetuate instability across the region, contributing to an increasing refugee exodus.

The Eritrean regime officials are due to attend the Africa-EU Summit to be held in the Maltese capital Valletta on November 11-12. Their presence will pose difficult questions for their European partners, since this will be a critical opportunity for EU diplomats to deal with the refugee crisis, while at the same time building peace and regional security.

*About the authors:
Martin Plaut
is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London. He was the Africa editor, BBC World Service News until he retired three years ago.

Prof. Dr Mirjam van Reisen is Professor International Social Responsibility, Tilburg University, Director Europe External Policy Advisors (EEPA), and Member of the Dutch Government Council on International Affairs and Chair of the Development Cooperation Commission.

IDN

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IDN-InDepthNews offers news analyses and viewpoints on topics that impact the world and its peoples. IDN-InDepthNews serves as flagship of the International Press Syndicate Group, partner of the Global Cooperation Council.

11 thoughts on “UN Security Council Considers Eritrea A Threat To Peace – Analysis

  • Avatar
    November 3, 2015 at 2:08 am
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    Dear Martin,
    Leave Eritrea alone and mind your own business. Nobody believes your lies. Sanctions were imposed on Eritrea on the basis of fabricated stories that Eritrea was supporting Al Shabab in Somalia. This has been proven to be false. Now the goal post is moving for support of groups opposed to the Ethiopian government, a Country that has not yet ended its war declaration and still occupies Eritrean land? Please give us something real for a change.

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 3, 2015 at 6:05 am
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    Eritrea has the right to cooperate and work together with its Arab countries. And so what is wrong to the world if eritrea give its port assab to UAE?
    If the security council worries about Yemen, why they do not ask to Saudi Arabia to stop? Instead they point fingers to ward eritrea. Dear writer we Eritreans are very strong people we do not get disturbed or mischiefed by your unfair article. Eritrea will stand strong where the bandits like the writer will diminish through time.
    God with us. Our land the land where Jesus Christ got raised. Its I’d not single land as you idiet may think.

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 3, 2015 at 1:35 pm
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    Weird. You mention Eritrea has been “backing Houthi rebellion”, then go on to describe how it is collaborating with Saudi Arabia and UAE in order to suppress the Houthi rebellion!

    Reply
    • Avatar
      November 6, 2015 at 8:38 am
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      You need to understand that the Eritrean regime has no allegiance based on ideology whatsoever with regard to the conflict in Yemen. As it is currently casually working with both Israel and Iran; the same can be said with Houthi rebellion and UAE [or Saudi Arabia]. At the moment the Eritrean regime needs money; finance is what it drives its foreign policy.

      Reply
  • Avatar
    November 3, 2015 at 10:04 pm
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    This is so upsetting . They are out to get Eritrea with false allegations. there is no evidence Eritrea is destabilizing the region, but they repeat these false allegations. all the reasons for Sanctions were based on false premise , meant to punish Eritrea for disagreeing on Somali policy. Eritrea has a right to lease their port .

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 4, 2015 at 10:17 pm
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    Martin Plaut has been (for several years) and continues to be at the center of an anti-Eritrea propaganda. He quotes fabricated so called evidence presented by incompetent UN entities that churn out reports every year in order to justify their existence. Taking what Martin Plaut says and writes about Eritrea seriously is like believing Elvis is still alive.

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 5, 2015 at 2:19 am
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    How can Eritrea support the Houthi rebellion while cooperating with Saudi Arabia at the same time?? You’ve lost it Martin.

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 5, 2015 at 8:54 am
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    Sloppy work. They don’t even read what they are writing about any more.
    This also shows how the readers who believe these stories are dumb.
    ” The backing of the Houthi rebellion in Yemen is indeed the most striking new finding. ”
    So now Eritrea is backing lol
    which one is it?

    ISIS was created by the United States of aggression. That’s what the writter meant to say.

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 5, 2015 at 11:19 am
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    Haile and others! Is Eriteria an Arab country? Why should it be dragged in none of its affair? Do you people believe that the totalitarian group has the right to do what it deems is to its interest going against the peoples of the territory and Africa? Who the hell do you think you people are to say leave Eriteria or help Eriteria as if you have a country, a nation, a people, and a territory worth of respect!

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 6, 2015 at 3:28 pm
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    How can eritrea be accused of supporting two sides at the same time and which international law prohibit a soverin country to lease it’s land to another

    Reply
  • Avatar
    November 9, 2015 at 1:09 pm
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    The article is made by group of highly proffessionals based on facts on the ground. The Eritrea regime has already lost the path long a go.no legitimate govt structure,the system is a group of mafias and extrimist old minded people.the region has to take a serious action againist the dying regime in Eritrea.

    Reply

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