After the historic Royal speech of March 9, 2011, Morocco has now reached the ground floor in the second phase of the process of establishing an advanced regionalization system. The first phase started with the announcement of His Majesty the King, on July 30, 2010, on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of his reign, the establishment of a Consultative Commission tasked with this issue.
To King Mohammed, this is not a “mere technical or administrative management,” but rather “a resolute option for the renovation and modernization of state structures, and the consolidation of the integrated development “. It does not reduce “to a simple redistribution of powers between the center and the regions.” Similarly, this regionalization “is a major turning point in the forms of territorial governance” and that, as a prelude to a “new dynamic radical institutional reform,” said the King. The constitutional recognition of regionalization through a referendum will be a guarantee of membership and popular support this new mode of governance.
The proposed regionalization in Morocco, is a revolution compared to all previous conceptions of decentralization. This is a new architecture that breaks with the past, both in its conception, its goals, expectations, as its objectives. This is one step in a continuing process of democratization of the political and social life
The logic of this approach can be explained by the choice of the path of regionalization for many years, for territorial entrench democracy in Morocco and to avoid also the creation of a large disparity between the all regions of the Kingdom, including the Southern Provinces.
On the democratic essence, this regionalization goal will strengthen the role of the region in Morocco, which implies major changes in the distribution of powers between central and local actors. It is the transfer of powers from the center to the periphery and will multiply decision centers and bring them closer to people. In this sense, the principles of decision-making autonomy and financial autonomy will be an important step forward in the path of consecration effective powers in the region.
Moreover, regarding the Sahara issue, regionalization is also the Moroccan perception of a solution to the dispute. Indeed, the advanced regionalization in Morocco provided in the constitutional reform is a “transitional stage” to the Sahara autonomy. Implementation of advanced regionalization in Morocco is the complement of the Moroccan offer combined dynamic and sustainable Sahara conflict.
To achieve the goals of regionalization, the plan to extend the powers of the presidents of regional councils will have executive powers. They will no longer depend on governors and walis. They will be awarded the total management of budgets and municipal assemblies will be accountable to the people and the law. In this vein, the constitutional recognition of the autonomy of management and administrative autonomy, contribute to enshrine the principle of separation of powers and their distribution between the central and local governments.
The King gave the broad guidelines to help ensure the consecration of regionalization according to the expectations and needs of the Moroccan people. These include measures to strengthen the role and the region as a territorial community, to promote the democratic election of the regional councils by direct universal suffrage and by assigning the presidents of the regional councils of power execution proceedings of such boards, instead of governors and walis. It is also to ensure that, as pointed out by the Sovereign, to strengthen the participation of women in the management of regional affairs and, in general, the exercise of political rights, including through the equal access of women and men to elective offices.
This regionalization project relates in particular the southern provinces of the Kingdom that will benefit from rights and privileges in the context of “good governance for equitable redistribution, not only functions, but also the means between the center and regions. “