ISSN 2330-717X

Prophet Abraham’s Hajj For Muslims And Jews – OpEd

By

Prophet Abraham established several sacred sites in the Land of Israel according to the Torah book of Genesis (12:7, 13:4, 13:18, 21:33); but Prophet Abraham’s most famous site was the ancient one that he and his son Prophet Ishmael rebuilt in Makka. 

Advertisement

Since Makka is over 750 miles south of the Land of Israel, Prophets Abraham and Ishmael must have arrived in Makka through Divine guidance; and Islamic tradition clearly states that Prophets Abraham and Ishmael were guided to Makka by the Sakina (Hebrew Shekinah).

The Sakina/Shekinah is mentioned in the Quran which states, “And their Prophet [Samuel] said to them [the Children of Israel]: “A Sign of his [Saul/Talut] authority is that there shall come to you the Ark (Tabut), and in it Sakina (a Covenant) with security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if you indeed have faith”. (2:.248)

In Islamic thought, Sakina/Shekinah refers to the tranquility, serenity and peace of mind that results when a believer becomes totally aware of God’s near by presence. Although Sakinah dwells in the heart of one who is already a sensitive and faithful believer; Sakina/Shekinah now comes to him or her directly from God’s close presence and personal interest; to confirm and strengthen that believer’s faith. 

As the Qur’an says “It is God who sent down Sakinah-tranquillity into the hearts of the believers, that they would increase in faith along with their (present) faith.” (48:4) Thus, the experience of Sakinah/Shekinah is both God’s gift of enhanced, confirming faith, and the product of one’s own faithfulness. (Qur’an 9:26 & 40) Both of these two experiences are frequently found during Hajj.

Modern Jews can see in the annual Muslim Hajj, some of the wonderful spiritual uplift that occurs when large numbers of people from all over the world travel to one holy place and join together in a traditional religious ceremony. Muslims in turn, can see some similarities in the ancient Jewish practice of Hajj ceremonies.

Advertisement

Very few Jews realize that for more than 1.000 years, while Jerusalem’s First and Second Temple–Bait ul Muqaddas/Beit HaMiqdash stood, the Jewish festival of Hag Sukkot was celebrated as a Hajj, a pilgrimage festival. In Biblical times the Hebrew letter g was sometimes pronounced g as in gym so Hag was pronounced Hajj. 

In the centuries after the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed by the Romans; pilgrimage ceased. Today the overwhelming majority of Jews outside the Land of Israel live in Protestant countries where pilgrimage plays little or no role in religious life. Thus, it is very hard for most Jews to feel the tremendous spiritual uplift that can occur to pilgrims on the long path to, and amidst the mass tumult of, a uniquely holy and sacred place.  

The Torah declares, “Celebrate Hajj Sukkot for seven days after you have harvested the produce of your threshing floor and your winepress. Be joyful at your festival—you, your sons and daughters, your male and female servants, the Levites, the foreigners, the fatherless and the widows who live in your towns. 

For seven days celebrate the festival to the Lord your God at the place the Lord will choose. For the Lord your God will bless you in all your harvest and in all the work of your hands, and your joy will be complete. Three times a year all your men must appear before the Lord your God at the place He will choose: at the Hajj of Matzah, the Hajj of Weeks, and the Hajj of Sukkot. (Deuteronomy 16:13-16)

On each of the first six days of Hajj Sukkot it was traditional to circle the Temple alter while reciting psalms from the Zabur of Prophet David. On the seventh day of Hajj Sukkot the custom was to circle the Temple alter seven times.

As the Oral Torah says: “It was customary to make one procession around the altar on each day of Hajj Sukkot, and seven on the seventh day.” (Mishnah Sukkah 4:5). Each circle is done in honor of a prophet; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron and David. 

Muslims will see some similarities and some differences between the Jewish Hajj and the Islamic Hajj.

With the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in 70 CE, the pilgrimage aspect of the week long harvest festival began a gradual decline in the spiritual consciousness of the Jewish People. Most of the many thousands of Jews from foreign lands outside the Land of Israel; and the tens of thousands of Jews from all over the Land of Israel outside the city of Jerusalem; who used to came each year to celebrate the week of Sukkot in Jerusalem at Bait ul-Muqaddas, the furthest sanctuary; ceased coming.

Two generations later, after a second major Jewish revolt (132-135 CE) in the land of Israel, the Romans rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city filled with idols, That stopped all Jews from coming to the ruined site of the Jerusalem Temple–Bait ul Muqaddas/Beit HaMiqdash. 

But even centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, and the end of pilgrimage, generations of Jews repeated wonderful tales about pilgrimage experiences in Jerusalem and at the Holy Temple.

“Crowded as Jerusalem was, there always was enough room to squeeze everyone in. Indeed, every year it seemed a continuing miracle that pregnant woman didn’t suffer a miscarriage, rain showers never quenched the fire on the alter, winds never blew smoke from the fire into the crowds of worshipers, and no one was ever bitten by a scorpion or a snake. Most amazing  of all, no one complained, ‘It is difficult for me to find lodging in Jerusalem’.” (Pirkay Avot 5:8) 

For Muslims, the Furthest Sanctuary is located in Jerusalem. “Glory to He Who carried His servant by night, from the Holy Sanctuary to the Furthest Sanctuary, the precincts of which We have blessed. so that We might show him some of Our signs. Surely He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing. (Qur’an 17:1) It is significant that the ruins of the Jerusalem Temple was the site of Prophet Muhammad’s ascension—miraj– up to the heavens. 

The Ka’ba rebuilt by Prophets Abraham and Ishmael, was some centuries later polluted by the introduction of many idols. Some centuries later Prophet Solomon built a Temple on the site where Prophets Abraham and Isaac were tested by God. 

Some centuries later the Temple of Prophet Solomon was destroyed by the Babylonians. It was then rebuilt only to again be destroyed some centuries later by the Romans, who would later pollute the whole site with a Roman city with buildings and streets filled with idols, 

The destruction of the Furthest Sanctuary center of monotheistic pilgrimage in Jerusalem by the pagan Romans, was five and a half centuries afterward overcome by Prophet Muhammad’s ascension—miraj up to the heavens; and then the removal by Prophet Muhammad of all the idols from the long paganized Ka’ba (Holy Sanctuary) in Makka.

The Jerusalem Temple will not be rebuilt by human hands, but Christians and Jews in large numbers still make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem similar to the Muslim Umrah. 

To this very day, Jerusalem and Mecca remain much smaller than the capitals of the great empires of the distant past, like Rome and Constantinople, and the recent past, like London and France. Yet the spirit that continues to rush forth from those two geographically tiny places provides inspiration to billions of Christians, Jews, and Muslims throughout the world.

The Prophet Zechariah envisions a future time when God helps humans to establish worldwide peace. Then all the nations in the world then may travel in peace to Makka or Jerusalem to worship the one ad only God. 

During Hajj Sukkot, a future Jerusalem will welcome both Jews and non-Jews, even including those who were previously Israel’s enemies: “Then the survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem, will go up year after year to worship the King, the Lord Almighty, and to celebrate Hajj Sukkot.” (Zechariah 14:16) 

Just as the Ka’ba has always welcomed all Muslims who answer Prophet Abraham’s call: “Call upon the people for Hajj. They will come to you on their bare feet, or riding any weak camel, and they come to you from every far desert. (Qur’an 22:27).

The Qur’an refers to Prophet Abraham as a community or a nation: “Abraham was a nation/community [Ummah]; dutiful to God, a monotheist [hanif], not one of the polytheists.” (16:120) If Prophet Abraham is an Ummah; then fighting between the descendants of Prophets Ishmael and Isaac is a civil war and should always be avoided. And prior to the 20th century Arabs and Jews never did make war with each other.

If all Arabs and Jews can live up to the ideal that ‘the descendants of Abraham’s sons should never make war against each other’ is the will of God; we will help fulfill the 2700 year old vision of Prophet Isaiah: “In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt, and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together. In that day Israel  will join a three-party alliance with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing upon the heart. The LORD of Hosts will bless them saying, “Blessed be Egypt My people, Assyria My handiwork, and Israel My inheritance.”…(Isaiah 19:23-5)

Rabbi Allen S. Maller

Allen Maller retired in 2006 after 39 years as Rabbi of Temple Akiba in Culver City, Calif. He is the author of an introduction to Jewish mysticism. God. Sex and Kabbalah and editor of the Tikun series of High Holy Day prayerbooks.

One thought on “Prophet Abraham’s Hajj For Muslims And Jews – OpEd

  • July 7, 2022 at 4:31 am
    Permalink

    Great article, very well written and very educational. May I add that Buddhism also considers Jerusalem a holy city, simply (ironic?) because it is so holy for so many people – Christian, Jewish and Muslim. Perhaps one day we can all go there as not just friends but pilgrims. Well done sir and please continue with your written thoughts and enjoy your retirement. L’Shana Haba’ah B’Yerushalayim!

    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.