Exactly, a year and half ago, I have started a new cycle of my essays (this is the 10th in the series) within the pages of Eurasia Review with the title “Virus Balkanicus – Fascist Chauvinism” with a goal to raise awareness within the Balkan people (former area of Yugoslavia) of the existing, ever-lasting process of degradation of the nation(s). Which was under the influence of re-awakening of something what we lived through back in nineties of the 20th Century – a bloody war, the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the establishment of “abortion” states after that. Simple as it is – Fascism and Chauvinism, which the EU nicely calls “populism” within the “new speech”.
Unfortunately, the situation is getting even worse. Why?
Because, fascist chauvinism is breaking out from north to south, from west to east and vice versa, of the mentioned areas.
From the “attack” of Serbia, with a help of Orthodox Church, on the sovereignty of Montenegro (with the help of domestic fascists), the recent “attack” (even though EU institutions) of Croatia and its president (former communist who became a fascist chauvinist recently) on the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina (with the direct and/or indirect help of domestic fascists of all involved sides, regardless if they are Croats, Bosniaks and/or Serbs. A lot of “bad mouthing” has come from the words of the political leaders within the area (not even to mention Janez Janša, the Prime minister of Slovenia, who currently resides as chairperson of the EU Commission and pronounced fascist chauvinist. Again, the European Union is calling this “populism”.
So, why I am calling it fascist chauvinism. I will simplify my explanation as possible as I can using the list given by Umberto Eco who noted 14 common features of fascism:
1. The cult of tradition. “One has only to look at the syllabus of every fascist movement to find the major traditionalist thinkers. The Nazi gnosis was nourished by traditionalist, syncretistic, occult elements.”
Just check out today’s focus on the past, even centuries ago, with no projection for the future if it is not based on the cult of tradition in every country of the former Yugoslavia. Serbians and the myth of Kosovo and never ending story of Greater Srbia, Bosniaks and the “the links” with Turks and Otoman Empire which was invader in Bosnia and Herzegovina once upon a time, Croatians and the border of Christianity against Byzantine….
2. The rejection of modernism. “The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, is seen as the beginning of modern depravity. In this sense Ur-Fascism can be defined as irrationalism.”
There is a re-awakening of the rejection of modernism all around. Democracy for all fascist-chauvinists within the area is one leader-one people-one country. Nationalism in a sense of “egalite, fraternite, liberte” is a compliment for them. Why, because equality exists only for the leading party (no matter if it Bosnian, Croatian, Albanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Montenegrin and/or Slovenian) members and their supporters. All others are minorities who has to obey and listen. The party on power’s thinking is: “Before us nothing existed. With us History starts”. Of any kind.
3. The cult of action for action’s sake. “Action being beautiful in itself, it must be taken before, or without, any previous reflection. Thinking is a form of emasculation.”
Yes, all the time and at any time, there are “actions”. Against domestic and foreign enemies. Nobody thinks about economy and freedom. For all the leading parties the economy is “take the money and run” and freedom is when they jeopardize somebody else’s freedom.
4. Disagreement is treason. “The critical spirit makes distinctions, and to distinguish is a sign of modernism. In modern culture the scientific community praises disagreement as a way to improve knowledge.”
Twenty years (2001) ago, I wrote within one of my domestic essays “The answer is simple” in Bosnia and Herzegovina magazine MOST, and later published in the book “Organi(zirana)zovana anarhija” (BiH, 2003) and “Bosnia and Herzegovina and XX! Century” (USA, 2014) that…quote: “Why obey to the ones on the front line? The answer is simple. Do not let anyone, who has been an indication with the possession of his/her own attitudes/stands, as its skepticism shows. And the reason? Do not bring into the question the word of a leader. Attitude and behavior of the leader. Opinion of the leader. Because, the leader is the nation. And he, as an individual person called a leader, is only the executioner of public desire. Complete ancient and centennial desires for final liberation from the self. In a word – through dying. …The answer is simple. …Not complicated, but really simple. In the moment when the general interests are beyond individual ones then we will finally cease to serve them. The moment when … Until then, I’ll try to fight the offenses to finally become part of the common good, not through the silence of Orwellian times, individual aspirations directed. And as the poet once said, “Whether the freedom will be able to sing as the slaves sang about it…?” I will not let freedom to do that, because I must live for the day. Some day of the future generations shaped within the foundations of the present. A day of good people; a day of truth and reconciliation. A day when there is not a matter of WHO you are, but only HOW are you doing things within your own mission. Because of yourself, within a whole society.“..end of quote. It is the same for all countries came out as abortion state from the former Yugoslavia.
5. Fear of difference. “The first appeal of a fascist or prematurely fascist movement is an appeal against the intruders. Thus Ur-Fascism is racist by definition.”
No where in the world does there exist more similarity between its nations, and yet no where does there exist so much fear of differences than in the area of Former Yugoslavia. We do not need interpreters between Bosniaks, Serbs, Croatians and Montenegrin, but we still call the language differently. All economies have depended upon each other for centuries, but they still look forward to find a cooperation with somebody else rather than in their own neighborhood. Not to talk about the citizenship for each country. Citizenship is related to the nation(s) and not to the any of the people from the former Yugoslavia, at least, those who were born in the same country, 30 years ago.
For example, take myself, who has a house (by the way, my father was not a communist but only a simple engineer who built the house based on his work) on the Croatian Adriatic coast since 1971 (at that time and until 1991, Croatia was a part of Yugoslavia). Being a Bosnian and Herzegovinian (Muslim) I cannot have Croatian citizenship. Well, yes, I can have Croatian citizenship, but only if within the period of 5 years I have spent all the time within that house (police coming at least 4 times a month to check if you are there).
Therefore, last year, 2020, I tried to use Article 13 (having two doctoral degrees and teaching in the EU as professor) of the Law on citizenship of Croatia to apply for it, having in mind that it might be of interest to Croatia to have somebody who is a writer ad a scholar. The main goal of mine was to make my life easier and to get ten times less communal taxes on my property per year in Croatia. Namely, with citizenship, I would pay 150 Euros, while without citizenship the tax is 1,000 Euros per year. Even though I am on quotation based lists around the world, my application was rejected saying that I did not publish any scientific paper in Croatia – even though I have been published in Poland, Italy, Lithuania, India, Switzerland, Germany and the USA as a scientist and a writer.
It all comes down to a fear of differences. Feeling of apartheid. By the Croatian government who gave citizenship to one Croat-Catholic from Bosnia and Herzegovina who lives in a remote village and who will never see the Adriatic coast because the domestic Croatian government who made him poor, and me who has paid already a lot of money in taxes in both Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, I have a problem. I am a Muslim from Bosnia and Herzegovina. It would even would be better for them if I were a Muslim fundamentalist, but I am an atheist. A scientist who believes in methodology of existence and dialectical materialism and not into the fictional person for grown up people, whom they call a God and/or Allah and/or Buddha.
6. Appeal to social frustration. “One of the most typical features of the historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class, a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political humiliation, and frightened by the pressure of lower social groups.”
…To be continued