Major U.S. arms sales and grants to Pakistan since 2001 have included items useful for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations, along with a number of “big ticket” platforms – including aircraft and missiles – more suited to conventional warfare, according to a Congressional Research Service that was released by the US State Department.
In dollar value terms, while the bulk of purchases have been made with Pakistani national funds, U.S. grants have eclipsed these in recent year, the CRS report notes.
According to CRS, the Pentagon reports total Foreign Military Sales agreements with Pakistan worth about $5.4 billion for FY2002-FY2010 (in-process sales of F-16 combat aircraft and related equipment account for about half of this). The United States has provided Pakistan with nearly $2.5 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) since 2001. These funds are used to purchase U.S. military equipment for longer-term modernization efforts.
Pakistan has also been granted U.S. defense supplies as Excess Defense Articles (EDA), said the report, although it noted that major discord in the U.S.- Pakistan bilateral relationship beginning mid-FY2011 has slowed the pace of transfers and deliveries considerably.
According to the CRS report, major post-2001 defense supplies provided, or soon to be provided, under FMF include:
- eight P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft and their refurbishment (valued at $474 million, four delivered, but two of these were destroyed in a March 2011 attack by Islamist militants);
- about 6,312 TOW anti-armor missiles ($186 million; at least 2,007 delivered);
- more than 5,600 military radio sets ($163 million);
- six AN/TPS-77 surveillance radars ($100 million);
- six C-130E transport aircraft and their refurbishment ($76 million);
- the Perry-class missile frigate USS McInerney, via EDA ($65 million for refurbishment; delivered);
- 20 AH-1F Cobra attack helicopters via EDA ($48 million, 12 refurbished and delivered); and
- 121 refurbished TOW missile launchers ($25 million).
Supplies paid for with a mix of Pakistani national funds and FMF include:
- up to 60 Mid-Life Update kits for F-16A/B combat aircraft (valued at $891 million, with $477 million of this in FMF, Pakistan currently plans to purchase 45 such kits and 8 have been delivered to date); and
- 115 M-109 self-propelled howitzers ($87 million, with $53 million in FMF).
The report also mentions that notable items paid or to be paid for entirely with Pakistani national funds include:
- 18 new F-16C/D Block 52 combat aircraft (valued at $1.43 billion; all delivered);
- F-16 armaments including 500 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; 1,450 2,000-pound bombs; 500 JDAM Tail Kits for gravity bombs; and 1,600 Enhanced Paveway laser-guided kits, also for gravity bombs ($629 million);
- 100 Harpoon anti-ship missiles ($298 million);
- 500 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles ($95 million); and
- six Phalanx Close-In Weapons System naval guns ($80 million).
Major articles, according to the CRS report, transferred via EDA include:
- 14 F-16A/B combat aircraft; and
- 59 T-37 military trainer jets.
Additionally, the report notes that Under Coalition Support Funds (part of the Pentagon budget), Pakistan received 26 Bell 412 utility helicopters, along with related parts and maintenance, valued at $235 million.
Under Section 1206, Frontier Corps, and Pakistan Counterinsurgency Fund authorities, the United States has provided 4 Mi-17 multirole helicopters (another 6 were provided temporarily at no cost), 4 King Air 350 surveillance aircraft, 450 vehicles for the Frontier Corps, 20 Buffalo explosives detection and disposal vehicles, helicopter spare parts, sophisticated explosives detectors, night vision devices, radios, body armor, helmets, first aid kits, litters, and other individual soldier equipment, according to the report.
Through International Military Training and Education and other programs, the United States has also funded and provided training for more than 2,000 Pakistani military officers, the report noted.