Virus Balkanicus–Fascist Chauvinism: It Is Getting Even Worse (Part II) – Essay


Continuing the previous essay on a topic, written back on 10.7.2021, today will present wider examples on the rest of 8 (eight) examples of Ur-fascism or Eternal fascism given by Umberto Eco

6. Appeal to social frustration. “One of the most typical features of the historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class, a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political humiliation, and frightened by the pressure of lower social groups.”

And even more, if the frustrated middle class got a job linked thanks to the party(ies) which is the case within 80% cases within any of the country of the former Yugoslavia, no matter if we are talking about left and/or center and/or right party on power or not, currently. Hypocrisy of the “spiral of silence” in real and virtual world where the voice of middle class is heard only within the masses. To define „manipulation“ depends on which field of human appearances we are focusing. Simply, general definition of „manipulation“ is „the skillful handling, controlling or using of something or someone for the certain individual or group plans, goals and interests“ (Hadžialić, S., 2017). 

Although, when we are talking about manipulation within and from media towards the public and establishing of so call „media democracy“ or shortly „mediocracy“ that is democracy which is handled/manipulated for the needs of intertwined interests of the certain politics/economics interest and/or media owners, we have definition such as: “Media manipulation is presentation of certain plans, goals and interests within hidden media presentation agenda, regardless which media we are using, in an adequate sociological, psychological and philosophical skillful way which will help the aim of manipulator to provoke receivers of the information to accept the goals of manipulators in acceptable and highly appreciate way that will lead towards creation of “common” interests that is, by the end of the day, only interest of the certain political or economical group within or outside of the media.” (Hadžialić, S., 2019)

To avoid this is education within media literacy to be able to recognize manipulation of all kind, although we have to have in mind that nobody is perfect and sometimes, even if we are media literate, we can be, unconsciously manipulated being not focused or sometimes relaxed without paying attention to the issue. Simply, it is like “corruption”: In undeveloped society, it goes up to 80 % within the system and within developed society, it stays up to 7 % of acceptable level. Manipulation is within human being behavior and we will, if educated in a way to recognize it, be able to recognize Trojan horse (Ancient Greece, around 1,180 B.C.) of manipulation and behave in accordance to his/her understanding of it.

7. The obsession with a plot. “Thus at the root of the Ur-Fascist psychology there is the obsession with a plot, possibly an international one. The followers must feel besieged.”

Amazing examples within the area of former Yugoslavia and EU for the above statement from Umberto Eco: In Serbia there is a myth of enemies all around the world who are waiting behind a corner to kill all the Serbs and destroy Serbian state as it is. Especially recently with the new changes of the Criminal Law of BiH re negating genocide and war crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina which has happened on 23.7.2021. Can you imagine that war criminals are heroes? You cannot, but in Bosnia and Herzegovina, depending on which side you are, accused and sentenced war criminals are heroes. In addition, genocide in Srebrenica did not happen, due to the all position and opposition parties in Republic of Srpska entity of BiH regardless International sentences and on and on and on…Myths as the way of living.

8. The enemy is both strong and weak. “By a continuous shifting of rhetorical focus, the enemies are at the same time too strong and too weak.”

Conflict in the area of former Yugoslavia never stopped since 1990. Nowadays you did not hear the guns and shells but you hear words that can be even worse, sometimes, than the guns and the shells. If international community move outside of BiH and re-focus on something else, conflict will be renewed, initiated from the outside again (Serbia and Croatia – which current governments are far away from democracy – I wrote about that on Eurasia pages back in 2020, here and here) together with domestic fascistic chauvinists of the interested parties. Although, you should never forget that there are no innocent ones within internal conflicts over here, only depends who did or who will do majority of the crimes during the war. Easy to check within the International courts decisions and sentences.

Enemies are here “other and different ones” regardless the religion and ethnicity and sometimes 2 play against one, depending of the corrupted, clientelistic interests of Bosniaks (Muslims), Serbs (Orthodox) and/or Croats (Catholics). That is why today “strong” enemy might be tomorrows friend and vice versa.

9. Pacifism is trafficking with the enemy. “For Ur-Fascism there is no struggle for life but, rather, life is lived for struggle.”

All the time here is life lived for struggle. If you do now vote for me, tomorrow they will come and kill our people. No talks about economy and culture as the key points / corner stones of one society. Only politics, politics, politics within its worse manners. Given promises prior to the elections are fulfilled within 10 % given words and with this tempo we will join the developed countries, if any, by 2100, while politicians and their bureaucratic huge levels of 143 ministers, 14 prime-minsters within the country of, due to census, 3.400.000 population (population of the suburban area of London), although there is no more than 2.400.000, if so, even, are living the best life ever, with the better salaries then politicians of the half of the countries of EU. 

As my colleague, Prof. Dr. Nerzuk Ćurak stated recently, revolution is the only solution. I agree, but using my formula “rights equal responsibility; responsibility equal empathy and empathy equal equality”.

10. Contempt for the weak. “Elitism is a typical aspect of any reactionary ideology.”

Capitalism as it is, within the countries of the former Yugoslavia (SFRJ) is the real picture of the neo-feudalism where you can see suddenly raised tycoons who, as the new believers, supported with fascist chauvinists on the power, creates environment where CEO can have 5.000 Euros salaries, while the workers gets between 250 and 500 Euros (as the example of big shopping malls as Bingo and/or owners of Gus stations such as Hifa oil). Of course, the ones with the money are the elites and guilt is on the back of the weak, those with lower salary. Although, the answer is simple and I wrote it back in 2001 with one sentence: “In the place where everybody is stealing, nobody does:”.

11. Everybody is educated to become a hero. “In Ur-Fascist ideology, heroism is the norm. This cult of heroism is strictly linked with the cult of death.”

Yes, we have defended, with our heroes, the nation, all three sides would say, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, although all of them control less area and have less people then people within the area. People are living countries of former Yugoslavia. Serbia, Montenegro, BiH, Croatia, Kosovo*, North Macedonia and one example of Bosnia and Herzegovina from where, within the first 6 (six) months of 2021 almost 85.000 people fled to the EU, say it all. To the Ur-fascist ideology that is OK and less people to worry about, while they stay within the country with their “heroes” (read: fascist chauvinists).

12. Machismo and weaponry. “Machismo implies both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality.”

Even, so call “intellectuals”, fighters for free society are full of machismo and intolerance and us, engaged intellectuals who respects (and show that) someone’s choice to be whatever he/she/ want to be, are on the blame stand that we are “like them” whom we support. Nevertheless, machismo and intolerance exists everywhere regardless sex/religion/ethnicity/age/education and a lot of water has to go under the bridge until media literate people are born here. But, the fight for it must go on. My way of fighting are my University textbooks as well.

13. Selective populism. “There is in our future a TV or Internet populism, in which the emotional response of a selected group of citizens can be presented and accepted as the Voice of the People.”

What suits fascist chauvinist within the area of Balkan, it will become “voice of the people”. How? Through the controlled media (80 % of media are under the control in one way or another, by ruling parties anywhere within the area of former Yugoslavia) and by amazing number of trolls and bots on social media. Masses are easy to control and especially if there is no critical thinking exists within the population and with no such things as media literacy.

14. Ur-Fascism speaks Newspeak. “All the Nazi or Fascist schoolbooks made use of an impoverished vocabulary, and an elementary syntax, in order to limit the instruments for complex and critical reasoning.”

If you want to see who won the wars in former Yugoslavia, just take any book anywhere and you will see than there is no losers, only winners. That shows only one thing, everybody lost the war. Especially, the people, regardless ethnicity, religion and population of itself. No possibility to have joint stand on the wars. As mentioned earlier, war are now in process, but different means. Fascist chauvinist ones, no matter who wrote the book(s) within the area of Former Yugoslavia.

Unfortunately, what is going on in Slovenia and Hungary (even Poland) these days shows that European Union did not invested too much into media literacy projects in the schools and media through educating people and educators. Exactly same thing what helped dissolution of Yugoslavia back in 1990 is happening nowadays with European Union and mentioned countries within it. I warned EU about that back in 2014, but nobody listened or did not want to listen.

So, ces’t la vie, but I will never stop, no matter what. Why? Because, the truth does not heart. It heals. 

Prof. Dr. Sabahudin Hadzialic

Prof. Dr. Sabahudin Hadzialic was born in 1960, in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 1964 he lives in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is a professor (two doctoral degrees), scientist, writer & poet (distinguished artist by state), journalist, and editor. He wrote 26 books (textbooks for the Universities in BiH and abroad, books of poetry, prose, essays as well as) and his art and scientific work is translated in 25 world languages. He published books in BiH, Serbia, France, Switzerland, USA and Italy. He wrote more than 100 scientific papers. He is certified peer-reviewer (his citations appear in books and papers of scientists from all continents) for several European scientific journals. He participates within EU project funds and he is a member of scientific boards of Journals in Poland, India and the USA. He is a member of the Board of directors of IFSPD ( Also, he is a regular columnists & essayist and member of the Editorial board, since 2014, of Eurasia Review, think tank and journal of news & analysis from the USA. Since 2009 he is co-owner and Editor in chief of DIOGEN pro culture - magazine for culture, art, education and science from the USA. He is a member of major associations of writers in BiH, Serbia and Montenegro as well as Foundations (scientific and non-governmental) Associations worldwide. As professor he was/is teaching at the Universities in BiH, Italy, Lithuania, Poland and India. Detailed info:

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