By Ayesha Rafiq
In the Islamic state of Pakistan, the struggle for women’s rights stands as an urgent call for change. Despite significant strides in recent years, there persists a lamentable gap in the realization of equal rights for women. Pakistan itself faces challenges hindering women’s progress in the education sector.
These obstacles are linked to insufficient government funding, a scarcity of educational institutions for women, and a low enrollment rate among women, primarily attributed to awareness gaps and limited acknowledgment of women’s rights in certain regions. Incidents of rape, honor killings, murder, and forced marriages are reported in underprivileged areas. These issues stem from educational deficits, poverty, a disrupted judicial system, governmental authorities’ failure to enforce laws, and widespread inefficiencies in law enforcement agencies like the Police.
One prominent example of women’s rights denied in Pakistan is the prevalent gender-based violence. The harrowing tales of domestic abuse and honor killings cast a dark shadow over the lives of countless women, highlighting a systemic failure to protect their basic right to life and security. To address this, stringent measures must be implemented to strengthen legal frameworks, prosecute perpetrators, and create safe spaces for victims to seek refuge and justice.
Education remains another pivotal battleground for women’s rights. Despite commendable progress, girls in certain regions of Pakistan still face barriers to accessing quality education. By investing in infrastructure, fostering a supportive educational environment, and challenging societal norms that perpetuate gender bias, we can pave the way for a generation of empowered women capable of shaping the nation’s future.
Pakistan is characterized by a patriarchal social structure, where men hold primary authority roles, relegating women to subordinate positions. Gender functions as a fundamental organizing principle in Pakistani society, shaped by patriarchal values entrenched in local traditions, religion, and culture. Tradition significantly influences gender roles, particularly emphasizing an artificial division between production and reproduction. This ideology, rooted in the sexual division of labor, assigns women to reproductive roles within the private sphere of the home, while men assume productive roles as breadwinners in the public arena.
Due to the negation of women’s roles as producers and providers across all social roles, Pakistani women experience a lack of social value and status. The preference for sons, given their perceived productive role, often results in the allocation of household resources in their favor. Traditionally, male family members receive better education and skills for competing in the public arena, while female members are trained in domestic skills for their roles as mothers and wives. Limited opportunities, coupled with social, religious, and cultural restrictions, hinder women’s ability to compete for resources in the public sphere.
This dynamic creates a scenario where women become socially and economically dependent, forming the foundation for male dominance in all social relationships.
Economic empowerment is a linchpin in dismantling gender inequalities. Women in Pakistan often encounter challenges in accessing employment opportunities, receiving fair wages, and ascending to leadership positions. Initiatives promoting entrepreneurship, vocational training, and affirmative action policies can redress these imbalances, propelling women into the workforce and positioning them as key contributors to economic growth.
A study from the year 2000 highlighted that the divorce rate in Pakistan was remarkably low, primarily attributed to the prevailing social stigma associated with marital dissolution. The cultural norms and societal expectations at that time played a significant role in discouraging individuals from opting for divorce. The reluctance to break marital ties was deeply rooted in the social fabric, where divorce carried a heavy stigma, potentially affecting the reputation and standing of those involved. This societal perspective contributed to maintaining a traditionally low divorce rate in Pakistan, in spite of happiness, satisfaction, and attainability.
Furthermore, addressing legal disparities is paramount. Discriminatory laws that impede women’s autonomy and perpetuate unequal treatment must be revisited and reformed. This includes inheritance laws, which often favor male heirs, leaving women disenfranchised and financially vulnerable. A comprehensive review of legislation is essential to ensure equal rights in all facets of life.
In fostering a cultural shift towards gender equality, media plays a pivotal role. By showcasing positive narratives and influential role models, the media can challenge stereotypes and inspire societal change. Collaboration between media outlets, civil society, and educational institutions can contribute to reshaping perceptions and fostering an environment that champions women’s rights.
Recognizing the importance of grassroots movements and community involvement is integral to this transformative journey. Local initiatives and women’s organizations, fueled by the passion of dedicated individuals, can catalyze change at the community level. These groups serve as beacons of support, providing resources, advocacy, and a platform for women to voice their concerns.
Moreover, engaging men as allies is crucial for dismantling entrenched gender norms. By fostering conversations around toxic masculinity and promoting a more inclusive understanding of masculinity, we can create an environment where men actively contribute to the advancement of women’s rights. It is not a battle of the sexes but a collective pursuit of a society where everyone can thrive.
In the digital age, technology serves as a powerful tool for change. Utilizing digital platforms for awareness campaigns, education, and networking can amplify the voices of women in Pakistan. Online spaces can become platforms for empowerment, connecting women across regions, fostering a sense of solidarity, and providing access to valuable resources.
It is essential to address additional pressing issues that contribute to gender disparities. One such concern is the persistent lack of healthcare access for women, particularly in rural areas. Limited access to reproductive health services and family planning information hinders women’s ability to make informed choices about their health and well-being. By bolstering healthcare infrastructure and awareness programs, we can empower women to take control of their lives.
Issues surrounding the dowry system include instances of dowry-related violence, where the wife may face abuse from her husband. Before entering into marriage, the groom of his family may place financial demands on the bride’s family, making it a prerequisite for marrying their daughter.
To facilitate their daughters’ marriages, many parents resort to obtaining loans from people, securing interest-based loans from banks, utilizing their life savings, and even selling their homes (Jaheez: Dowry Conditions Set by the Groom and his family for Marriage). Within the dowry system, the likelihood of abuse increases after the marriage has taken place. If the specified conditions set by the groom and his family before the marriage are not met, they may threaten to call off the marriage. This situation can be devastating for the bride and her family, given the extensive measures they have already undertaken to fulfill the dowry requirements, and it is traditionally considered a significant dishonor to the family.
Another critical aspect is the digital gender divide. While technology can be a catalyst for empowerment, many women in Pakistan face barriers to digital literacy and internet access. Bridging this gap is crucial to ensure that women can leverage the benefits of the digital era, from online education to economic opportunities. Initiatives promoting digital literacy and affordable internet access can pave the way for women to thrive in the increasingly interconnected world.
Child marriage remains a deeply entrenched issue, affecting the lives of numerous young girls in Pakistan. Early marriages often curtail educational opportunities and perpetuate cycles of poverty. Strengthening and enforcing laws against child marriage, coupled with educational initiatives promoting the importance of girls’ education, can break the chains of this harmful practice.
Additionally, the issue of workplace harassment is a significant impediment to women’s professional advancement. Creating and enforcing stringent laws against workplace harassment, coupled with fostering a culture of zero tolerance, can empower women to pursue careers without fear of discrimination or abuse.
Despite the challenges, it is crucial to highlight the resilience, strength, and accomplishments of Pakistani women who continue to defy societal norms. Their stories serve as a testament to the potential for change and the importance of dismantling barriers that hinder the full realization of women’s rights.
From the world of literature, Bano Qudsia stands as an iconic figure who defied conventions through her powerful writings, addressing societal issues with a fearless pen. In the realm of politics, Benazir Bhutto emerged as the first female Prime Minister in a predominantly Muslim country, breaking barriers and leading with resilience. The field of education witnessed the remarkable Malala Yousafzai, who valiantly championed girls’ right to education despite facing adversity, earning global recognition and a Nobel Peace Prize. Asma Jahangir, a distinguished human rights lawyer, fearlessly fought for justice and equality, leaving an indelible mark on Pakistan’s legal landscape. These women, among many others, have not only shattered glass ceilings but have also become beacons of inspiration, redefining what it means to be a Pakistani woman and contributing significantly to the nation’s progress. Their stories echo the strength, and transformative impact that women can bring to society when they challenge traditional norms.
In conclusion, addressing the multifaceted issues impeding women’s rights in Pakistan requires a comprehensive and sustained effort. By tackling these issues, we can create an environment where women are free to pursue their aspirations without constraints. Let us collectively work towards a Pakistan where women are not only granted their inherent rights but are also provided with the opportunities and support needed to thrive in this society. To make a difference. And walk towards a brighter and equitable future.
Empowering women isn’t just about leveling the playing field; it’s about creating a world where every woman’s potential shines, where equality isn’t a goal but a lived reality, where people stand shoulder to shoulder and dream of a better life.