US And Global Promotion Of Hybrid Wars: A Perspective From Latin America – OpEd


The great English geopolitical theorist Halford Mackinder in his famous conference “The geographical pivot in history” in 1904 divided the world as a system (he was the first to speak of a system from a historicist geopolitical approach to Earth) on the World Island: Eurasia. In the area of Russia is the decisive area of world power and the continental islands – such as Africa and America that do not have direct access to the world island.

Over time, Nicholas John Spykman, geopolitical theorist of the US world supremacy and a disciple of Mackinder, wrote during the Second World War “USA against the world” and ratifies the need to control Eurasia from the Rimland, since the US is a global hegemon that has the characteristic of not being located on the world island, but on the continental island. [1]

It is the first empire in history with this geopolitical exceptionality, so England is essential to divide Europe and Japan to divide Asia and thus become an accessible platform to control the world island.

But Spykman adds a twist, we must keep Balkanized Latin America divided so that it does not manage to articulate its cultural unity in political power and for this the instrument was economic and military aggression. Spykman renews the so-called Monroe doctrine from a new geopolitical logic [2] to make it their backyard and that “America for the Americans,” truly means:”the Americas for the USA”.  we must remember that it was born to boycott the unionist idea of the Liberator Simon Bolivar.  The philosopher José Vasconcelos crumbles him very well in his work “Bolivariano vs Monroísmo“.

The US is in a great strategic disorientation in the post-Cold War and in the face of the emergence of a multipolar world from the defeat of Daesh or ISIS, a terrorist organization created by them – as is clear from WikiLeaks and the role of Hillary Clinton – in Syria caused by the Syrian forces themselves, Russia, Iran and the active diplomacy of Pope Francis, as well as other events and processes.

This makes the Imperial Republic a wounded and more dangerous lion with its Falcons pretending to redraw the world board, world system with military muscle. Thus being the main destabilizer of international security and at the same time promoter of global Terrorism.

On the world island he is creating a dangerous escalation against the Islamic Republic of Iran, a country of regional power in the Islamic cultural world 40 years after the revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini. precisely in the area of the Arabian Sea and the Strait of Hormuz – of an unparalleled geopolitical significance as the main oil route – and here the power of Iran and its links with Russia and China are combined.

It also involves England, its privileged retiree according to Brzezinski, in a dangerous zero-sum game that has already produced losses such as the demolition of a drone or the seizure of English ships. To this is added the diplomatic isolation due to the current worldwide discrediting of its historical allies such as Saudi Arabia and Israel, true serial human rights violators.

This political short-sightedness of the hawks of American foreign policy may lead the US in a short time- into a fatal defeat in the World Island.

This is aggravated by the impulse of a new Monroe doctrine on the continental island, that is, in what they consider their “backyard.”
This doctrine for us is clear has three pillars: economic, judicial and military.

In economic terms, indirect or direct war against China, in judicial matters, to create a persecution party directed based on their interests (former judge Moro and the arrest of Lula is a paradigmatic case) and the militarization of South America creating the hypothesis that terrorism and organized crime are the threats in a new face of the old National Security Doctrine.

In Venezuela the first hybrid war of Latin American history is taking place [3] And this is a worldwide surprise, although many “local experts” are silent in that Venezuela in alliance with other actors is leading a defeat to the US on the World-Island. In this lies a central fact, the silence and the declaration of non-intervention of the Brazilian Armed Forces against the support of the US for its president, Bolsonaro.

And the diplomatic group of countries of “support for democracy in Venezuela”, a kind of new OAS, the so-called PROSUR or rather PRONORTE does not have the minimum prestige, to the point that one of its leaders is the discredited Argentine president Macri.

Five months after the Guaidó doctrine was launched in the context of the new Monroe doctrine, everything has failed in Venezuela and even from the diplomatic to the military.

Venezuela is the real border of South America with the US, the Caribbean is the Mare Nostrum of the Empire and its geopolitical characteristics is unique because it is: Latin American, South American and Caribbean. It is the great achievement of rediscovering it for us what Commander Hugo Chávez did. 

The thing is about not to deviate us in the question of Maduro yes or Maduro not. But in recognizing that the Guaidó doctrine can lead any citizen from a platform to proclaim himself president if the US recognizes him within fifteen minutes. If that succeeds, tomorrow anyone will proclaim himself president of the Amazon, Patagonia or the so-called Triple Frontier and a re-Balkanization of Latin America could occur.

That is to say, at this point the US is also being defeated mainly by the unity of the Bolivarian armed forces. Not by chance, the disastrous Francis Fukuyama – admired by much of the Argentinian Inteligentzia – has just declared in his brand new visit to Argentina,  that the Bolivarian armed forces is an army of drug traffickers

And in his latest book “Identity” he attacks Juan Domingo Perón as the archetype of resentment politics in South America.  The saddest thing is that the vast majority of pejotist  [4] leaders  They do not feel referenced in these terms by cowardice and cipayism [5].

However, Peronism as a cultural historical phenomenon is at the base of the Argentine people and pejotist leaders must know that if they are not faithful to the people, they will be razed by history.

As the last point of the analysis, we say that it has just been carried out in Buenos Aires with the presence of the US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, the II Hemispheric Conference against Terrorism, continuation of the first one held in December 2018 in the US.

Terrorism is the enemy, as conclusion of the encounter. Better to say the so-called “Islamic terrorism” and Iran is accused of the attacks on the Embassy and the AMIA. At this point, we echo the words of Pope Francis when he said that “terrorism is not synonymous with Islamism.”

But two days before July 19 that the meeting was, President Macri declared in a record that he created under pressure from the US and Israel that the Hezbolla group of Lebanon is a terrorist organization.

This constitutes a fact of a unique gravity because it is a true declaration of war against Lebanon, since Hezbolla is an officially recognized party that has legislators and ministries in Lebanon – that is, it is part of the government – and even more, not even the Nations United declares it as a terrorist organization. And there is also a persecution without equal to Syrian-Lebanese citizens and descendants, fully integrated into Argentine society.

The irresponsibility is so great that the Argentine government is involved in the “third world war in pieces” denounced by Pope Francis and dangerously aligns us with the US, Israel and Saudi Arabia, in a war they are losing to Russia, Turkey, Iran, China and Syria and papal multipolar diplomacy.  And this defeat on the world island is the main factor in the birth of a multipolar “order”, the opposite was a global military empire that was “The Project for the New American Century” of the American hawks.

Also from the US, they accuse Hezbollah of having planned the two attacks and financing terrorism from the Triple Frontier. 

Triple Frontier is a geopolitical category born in the US referring to an “area without law.” it was always and is the milestone of the three borders between Puerto Iguazú-Argentina-, Foz do Iguazú-Brasil- and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay .

The record of tourist influx increases year by year, the integration is total in the commercial, cultural, educational fields like any border.

Of course there are facts of insecurity, such as smuggling of all kinds, for example. which involves the issue of border security. But there was never a terrorist attack or terrorist groups were discovered.

And here is a nuclear point. We cannot talk about any issue and more about security without specifying the strategic actors.

There is no unanimous consensus in international law on terrorism. For us Terrorism, rather than a subject, is a tactic of violence for political purposes. It can be an individual, a para-police or paramilitary group, an individual or a State. That is, what defines terrorism is not the morphology of the subject but its action. Regarding organized crime, we can affirm that it is a structured group that, based on drug trafficking, and as territoriality gains, it becomes an economic and not only economic political actor.

We also clarify that there is not only organized crime with the collusion of sectors of political, police, judicial, business, etc. But more than anything in the global financial sector. that is to say of the tax havens or ‘fiscal dens’ that make the dirty circuit of drug trafficking money “enter” into the legal circuit.

There are accusations of intelligence services of the “financial movements” of Lebanese families, and the “security experts” in a cut and paste of the “information” write about it. There are always very few exceptions among experts, but there are.

But nobody says anything for ex. that the former president of Paraguay, Cartes, a close friend of Macri, is accused of being one of the leaders of the informal economy in Ciudad del Este. And besides, Ciudad del Este is full of Anglo-American banks. Already these reports, they came to say that Bin Laden was in the area in the 90s of the last century without any seriousness.

However, it is striking that these “experts” do not speak of the desires of the Imperial Republic of the Guaraní aquifer system, biodiversity, lithium, oil, gas, in synthesis of our natural resources.

Finally, we have failed as Unasur at the time, when the South American Defense Council was created, it has not coordinated with the community the preparation of an Observatory of crime and violence between justice, municipalities, intermediate associations, universities, etc.

There is much talking about the “triple frontier”, without knowing, we reiterate by cutting and pasting newspapers.

In my case, I am a Professor at the Tres Fronteras International University (University of the Three Borders) of postgraduate studies in Ciudad del Este, I have been invited by the Latin American University of Integration (UNILA) in Foz to exhibit at congresses and I have taught the Police of Misiones Province and the Argentinian Army in Iguazu.

And therefore, they did not tell me, I know very well the milestone of the three Borders and in homage to that great border community we have a duty to know and demand the truth, but seriously.

Therefore, we believe that the promotion of hybrid wars is carried out by the US, as a sponsor of Terrorism and worse, now that they are losing on the world island and the continental island. His strategic despair transforms him into the main destabilizer of world peace.

*Prof. Dr Miguel Ángel Barrios (Argentina) is Academic Director of Dossier Geopolitico. He holds PHD in Education – PHD in Political Science. Author of more than fifteen works of Latin American Politics, Prof. Dr Barrios is recognized by the specialized critics as one of the referents of Latin American thought.


[1] Miguel Ángel Barrios: Diccionario Latinoamericano de Seguridad y Geopolítica. (Latin American Dictionary of Security and Geopolitics.)

[2] Indeed a unilateral statement by President James Monroe devised by his secretary of state Quincy Adams.

[3] In summary hybrid warfare are new forms of war where all types of war in history are combined, or whether conventional, unconventional, terrorism, psychological warfare, economic warfare, disinformation war, paramilitary actions seeking regime change government , etc.).

[4] From PJ: Partido Justicialista (Justicialist Party, formal name of the official peronist party)

[5] From “CIPAYO” (sepoy) derogatory term in Argentina, in reference to those who act or think in favor of foreign powers. Term popularized by the thinker Arturo Jauretche.

Article translated from Spanish into English by Juan Martín González Cabañas .

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