ISSN 2330-717X

Pluralism In India: An Exploration – OpEd


If you attend this year’s Indian Republic Day, you’ll be reenacting Purna Swaraj Day, which took place in 1930 when the Congress party’s leaders determined that Indians required absolute sovereignty, not simply dominion. The Indian constitution was enacted on January 26, 1950. India has been seen as a secular nation since its independence from British control. The right to life, equality before the law, and a progressive welfare state are all guaranteed under the Indian constitution of 1947. Regardless, India’s recent history proves this is not the case. Fake democracy and fascist ideology began to erode the country’s strength soon after independence. 


Before and after the current government’s election victory in India, Aakar Patel, an Indian author, evaluated the country’s performance in a variety of categories of human security and development. He says that data on life expectancy, access to basic necessities, and overall well-being reveal the country’s neglect and underdevelopment. According to a human rights organisation, over 700 episodes of communal violence occurred this year. Around 300 assaults against Christians are expected in December 2021, according to another Indian human rights organisation.

On the other hand, a variety of indicators reveal that India has a poor record when it comes to civil liberties, human rights, and press freedom. India jumped four positions to become the world’s most hazardous nation for women between 2011 and 2018. In India, sectarian violence has resulted in a rise in human rights violations throughout the country. Hindu extremist ideology and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’s (RSS) tactics include inciting riots among various groups of people.

India’s government can get away with these breaches of minorities’ rights because the country wields substantial global influence and international politics moves quickly. The repeal of Articles 370 and 35-A, the new map of India, and the Citizenship Amendment Act 2019 are only a few instances of India’s fractured unity.

The Indian government wants to establish a secure and peaceful world by maintaining fair and honest ties with other countries, according to Article 51 of the Indian Constitution. The Indian RAW reveals its colonial aspirations when it behaves aggressively toward South Asia and takes a stand against other nations in the region. According to the findings, India has had to contend with “hegemonic policies” that have been “constantly” invading the nation. India invaded Sikkim, governed Bhutan, Burma, and Bangladesh, and aided terrorism in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, among other nations. As a consequence, Pakistan was split in two. The Indian constitution’s Article 51, which is rather short, contrasts sharply with these conflicting practises.

India was the most dominant nation in the region for a long time, causing severe regional security and cooperation challenges. Pakistan has been a target of Indian espionage for as long as India has existed. India’s use of deceit as a governance tactic is shown when it assaults its own territory while falsely accusing Pakistan of terrorist involvement in India. Only a few examples include the hijacking of an Indian airliner named Ganga in 1971, Flight 814 (in 1999), and the slaughter of 35 Sikhs in Chittisinghpura in 2000. This list includes the Mumbai attack, the Pathankot and Uri assaults, as well as the Mumbai and Pathankot bombs. They exposed India’s support of extremists both on the mainland and in Indian-controlled Kashmir. an unbiased assessment of something (IIOJK).


According to “Indian Chronicles,” a study performed by the Brussels-based non-profit EU Disinfo Lab, India has spent a significant amount of money and effort to malign Pakistan. India now has an “ugly” face. The scale and depth of India’s bigger subversion effort against Pakistan are shown by the volume and breadth of misinformation used to portray Pakistan negatively to the rest of the globe. India’s covert actions against Pakistan are nothing new in this region. India’s efforts against Pakistan have been widely publicised, and it is now critical to assess the situation and determine what is going on.

These activities are only an effort by the Indian government to demonstrate its dedication to the Hindutva charter, which extols white supremacist saffron terrorism, the illegal annexation of the IIOJK state, and religious minorities and lower-caste Dalit rights violations. For a long time, India attempted to erase any signs of its past. This has undermined the country’s ostensibly pluralistic foundations.

*Adeel Mukhtar Mirza, Assistant Research Associate, Islamabad Policy Research Institute. 

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