Extreme Weather Events: Dimensions, Causes And Effects – OpEd


Climate change is primarily driven by human activities, especially the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, which trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere and lead to global warming.

One of the major impacts of climate change is the increase in frequency, intensity, and unpredictability of extreme weather events. These events include:

a. Heatwaves: As global temperatures rise, heatwaves are becoming more frequent, intense, and lasting longer. This not only affects human health but also agriculture, water supply, and natural ecosystems.

b. Heavy Rainfall and Flooding: Warmer air holds more moisture, leading to more intense precipitation events. This can result in severe flooding, damaging infrastructure, homes, and agriculture, and posing risks to human life.

c. Droughts: While some regions experience increased rainfall, others face prolonged periods of drought, exacerbating water scarcity, affecting crop production, and leading to food shortages.

d. Hurricanes and Tropical Storms: There is evidence that the intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms is increasing due to warmer sea surface temperatures. These storms can cause widespread destruction, including loss of life, damage to buildings and infrastructure, and economic losses.

e. Wildfires: Increased temperatures and prolonged drought conditions in many parts of the world are contributing to more frequent and severe wildfires. These fires not only cause immediate damage but also have long-term ecological impacts and contribute to air pollution.

f. Sea-Level Rise: The warming climate leads to the melting of ice caps and glaciers, contributing to higher sea levels. This poses a threat to coastal communities through increased flooding and erosion.

g. Changes in Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Extreme weather events, along with shifting temperatures and precipitation patterns, are affecting ecosystems and biodiversity. Species are being forced to adapt, migrate, or face extinction, impacting global biodiversity and ecosystem services.

In today’s context, climate change and mitigating its impacts on extreme weather events requires global cooperation and concerted efforts at all levels of society. 

Causes of climate change

Extreme weather events attribute to a variety of natural and human-induced factors. The primary causes include:

a. Climate Change: Human-induced climate change, primarily due to the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane from burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes, is a significant driver of more frequent and intense extreme weather events. The warming of the Earth’s surface leads to changes in weather patterns, making certain extreme events more likely and severe.

b. Natural Climate Variability: Natural phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña, which are part of the Earth’s climate system, significantly influence weather patterns. El Niño leads to warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting global weather patterns, including increased rainfall in some areas and droughts in others while La Niña tends to have the opposite effect, often associated with cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures in the same regions, influencing global weather differently.

c. Ocean Currents: Changes in ocean currents can also contribute to extreme weather events. Ocean currents play a crucial role in regulating the Earth’s climate by distributing heat around the globe. Any significant alteration in these currents can lead to abnormal weather patterns, including extreme events.

d. Atmospheric Circulation Patterns: The way air moves around the Earth, known as atmospheric circulation, can significantly impact weather. For example, changes in the jet stream’s path can lead to prolonged periods of weather conditions, such as cold spells or heatwaves.

e. Volcanic Activity: Major volcanic eruptions can inject large quantities of ash and sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere, creating aerosol clouds that can reflect sunlight and cool the Earth’s surface temporarily. This cooling effect can lead to unusual weather patterns and even reduce the intensity of tropical cyclones for a period.

f. Urban Heat Islands: Urban areas, with their high concentrations of buildings, roads, and other infrastructure, tend to absorb and retain heat more than rural areas. This effect can exacerbate heatwaves in cities and affect local weather patterns.

g. Deforestation and Land Use Changes: Removing vegetation and altering land surfaces can affect local climates by changing how the Earth’s surface absorbs and reflects sunlight, influencing moisture availability and wind patterns. 

Larger effects

Extreme weather events, exacerbated by climate change, have wide-ranging and significant effects on the environment, society, and economy. Some of the major impacts include:

a. Human Health: Extreme weather events can have profound impacts on human health. Heatwaves can lead to heat stress and an increase in heat-related illnesses and deaths. Severe storms and floods can cause injuries, fatalities, and mental health issues due to trauma and displacement. The spread of diseases can also be influenced by changing weather patterns, with warmer temperatures and increased rainfall favouring the proliferation of vectors such as mosquitoes, which transmit diseases like malaria and dengue fever.

b. Infrastructure Damage: Extreme weather events like hurricanes, floods, and severe storms can cause extensive damage to infrastructure, including roads, bridges, power lines, and buildings. This not only leads to immediate repair costs but also disrupts essential services and can have long-term economic impacts.

c. Economic Losses: The economic impact of extreme weather events can be staggering, affecting various sectors including agriculture, tourism, and insurance. Crop failures due to drought, floods, or storms can lead to significant losses in agricultural productivity, affecting food security and livelihoods. Tourism can be affected by extreme weather events that damage destinations or deter visitors. The insurance industry faces increased claims, which can lead to higher premiums and financial instability.

d.  Agricultural Impact: Extreme weather events can devastate agriculture, affecting food production, prices, and food security. Droughts can lead to crop failures and water shortages, while excessive rainfall and flooding can damage crops and soil. These events can also disrupt food distribution chains, exacerbating food scarcity in vulnerable regions.

e. Displacement and Migration: Severe weather events can lead to displacement and forced migration, as people lose their homes and livelihoods. This can result in overcrowded living conditions, strain on resources in host communities, and social and political tensions.

f. Ecosystem Disruption: Extreme weather events can severely impact ecosystems and biodiversity. Heatwaves, droughts, and fires can lead to habitat destruction, loss of plant and animal species, and altered ecosystem functions. Coral bleaching events, driven by elevated sea temperatures, can devastate coral reef ecosystems, affecting marine biodiversity and the communities that rely on them.

g. Social and Political Impacts: The effects of extreme weather can exacerbate social inequalities and contribute to political instability. Vulnerable populations are often the hardest hit, lacking the resources to effectively respond to and recover from disasters. This can lead to social unrest and conflict over scarce resources.

Mitigating the effects of extreme weather events requires a multifaceted approach, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing resilience and adaptive capacity of communities, improving infrastructure, and implementing early warning systems and disaster risk reduction strategies.

Dr. Rajkumar Singh

Dr. Rajkumar Singh is a University Professor for the last 20 years and presently Head of the P.G. Department of Political Science, B.N. Mandal University, West Campus, P.G. Centre,Saharsa (Bihar), India. In addition to 17 books published so far there are over 250 articles to his credit out of which above 100 are from 30 foreign countries. His recent published books include Transformation of modern Pak Society-Foundation, Militarisation, Islamisation and Terrorism (Germany, 2017),and New Surroundings of Pak Nuclear Bomb (Mauritius, 2018). He is an authority on Indian Politics and its relations with foreign countries.

One thought on “Extreme Weather Events: Dimensions, Causes And Effects – OpEd

  • February 1, 2024 at 4:12 pm

    The author is a political science professor. Therefore his comments on the cause of so-called climate change are pure, uneducated and ignorant speculation.


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