A Tale Of Two Eras: An Examination Of Pakistan’s Economic Landscape Under Imran Khan And PDM Government – Analysis


The Pakistani economy has always been a delicate tightrope walk, riddled with challenges and precariously balanced between progress and peril. Recent events, however, have ignited a fiery debate regarding the nation’s financial trajectory, thrusting two starkly contrasting narratives into the spotlight.

On one side stands the legacy of Imran Khan’s ousted government, is remembered by many for bold reforms and promises. On the other side, the former PDM government’s economic performance is under intense scrutiny. 

Expert Opinions vs. Public Perception: The Bloomberg Factor

Adding fuel to the debate is a recent survey conducted by Bloomberg, a trusted name in the financial world. Jailed ex-Prime Minister Imran Khan is the top pick for Pakistani finance professionals to oversee the cash-strapped economy’s recovery, according to a Bloomberg survey.

Khan, effectively barred from contesting the Feb. 8 election, was ranked highest among 12 traders, economists and analysts from some of the nation’s biggest brokerages. Respondents cited the former cricket star’s enduring popularity as a key reason, saying he’d be able to push through market-focused reforms in the long run. This endorsement from industry insiders sent shockwaves through the political landscape, raising questions about the PDM government’s performance and casting a critical eye on its economic stewardship. 

Beyond the Headlines: Unveiling the Economic Landscape under Two Regimes

But before delving into expert opinions, let’s examine the cold, hard facts – the numbers that paint a picture of Pakistan’s economic reality under both regimes: 

Exchange Rate:

Under Khan’s rule (August 2018 – April 2022), the Pakistani rupee hovered around Rs. 178-186 per dollar, representing a period of relative stability. However, the PDM government’s tenure (April 2022 – August 2023) witnessed a dramatic rise, with the dollar peaking at a staggering Rs. 310. This volatility, coupled with a widening gap between the inter-bank and open market rates, created uncertainty and impacted overseas remittances, which declined by $1.8 billion. 


The story of inflation is stark. While Khan’s government grappled with a manageable 12-13%, the PDM era saw it explode to a staggering 40% – the highest in Pakistan’s history. This skyrocketing inflation eroded purchasing power, squeezing household budgets and significantly impacting the quality of life for ordinary citizens. 

Essential Commodities:

The prices of essential commodities like sugar and flour, crucial for daily sustenance, tell a similar tale. Sugar, once available for Rs. 80 per kg under Khan, reached Rs.180 per kg. in PDM era. Now the price of the same sugar is 155 rupees per kg. While flour has doubled in price, jumping from Rs. 55 to Rs. 140. These price hikes represent the daily struggles of families forced to tighten their belts and make difficult choices.

Fuel Costs: A Point of Contention

Adding another layer to the economic debate is the issue of fuel prices. When Imran Khan’s government concluded its tenure in April 2022, the price of petrol stood at Rs. 149 per liter, and diesel at Rs. 144. While the PDM opposition criticized these costs as high, their subsequent actions stand in stark contrast. During the PDM government’s tenure, under Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif, the price of petrol skyrocketed to a staggering Rs. 310 per liter – more than doubling Khan’s price. This sharp increase significantly impacted transportation costs, further fueling inflation and impacting citizens’ daily lives 

Employment and Growth: The PDM government’s tenure coincided with a surge in unemployment, estimated at 30-40%. This, coupled with a decline in GDP growth from 6% under Khan to 0.5% under PDM, paints a bleak picture for job creation and economic opportunities. Young graduates find themselves facing a challenging job market, their aspirations often unmet. 

Foreign Exchange Reserves: Pakistan’s foreign exchange reserves, a vital indicator of financial stability, also saw a contrasting trajectory. Khan left behind reserves of $16.4 billion, which significantly dwindled under the PDM government, reaching a low of $7.8 billion before recovering slightly under the caretaker administration. This depletion raises concerns about Pakistan’s vulnerability to external shocks. 

Electricity and Gas Costs: The burden of essential utilities also presents a stark contrast. Under Khan, low electricity consumers paid Rs. 9.50 per unit, while high consumers paid Rs. 15-16. The PDM government significantly increased these rates, with even minimal consumers paying Rs. 16.50 and heavier consumers facing charges as high as Rs. 35-40. Industries also saw a substantial rise in gas and electricity tariffs under the PDM government. 

Export Performance: Pakistan’s export performance under the two regimes paints a different picture. During Khan’s tenure, even amid the COVID-19 pandemic, exports were steadily increasing. Faisalabad, a textile hub, saw a boom, with skilled workers in high demand and power looms running at full capacity. However, under the PDM government, exports have declined significantly. Experts attribute this to factors like rising energy costs, high inflation, and import-unfriendly measures. 

Beyond the Numbers: The Human Cost

The economic indicators paint a concerning picture, but the true impact lies in the human cost. The surge in migration, with over three times more people leaving Pakistan in 2022 compared to 2021, speaks volumes about the lack of confidence in the economic trajectory and the desperation for a better future elsewhere. This exodus represents a loss of valuable human capital and skilled workers, further hindering economic development. 

Beyond Statistics: The Impact on Daily Lives

The economic data paints a broad picture, but the true impact is felt in the daily lives of ordinary citizens. The rising cost of living, fueled by inflation and soaring essential commodity prices, forces families to make difficult choices, often sacrificing basic needs. Young people struggle to find decent employment opportunities, their dreams and aspirations deferred. Businesses grapple with rising operational costs and shrinking markets, jeopardizing their survival and impacting overall economic activity. The uncertainty surrounding the future casts a long shadow, creating anxiety and hindering long-term planning. 

Looking Forward: A Nation at a Crossroads

Pakistan stands at a crossroads, grappling with the legacy of past policies and the uncertainties of the future. The caretaker government’s role is to ensure free and fair elections, paving the way for a new administration to tackle the challenges at hand. The economic debate will undoubtedly remain a central focus, with voters seeking clarity on the direction of the nation’s finances and the policies that will shape their lives. 

Navigating a Complex Landscape: Challenges and Opportunities

The path forward for Pakistan’s economy is fraught with challenges. Addressing long-standing issues like corruption, improving governance, and fostering a business-friendly environment are crucial steps. Building a diversified and export-oriented economy is essential to reduce dependence on imports and ensure sustainable growth. Investing in education and healthcare will empower the workforce and improve living standards. Addressing climate change and its economic implications is another pressing concern. 

The Role of Informed Choices and Collaborative Action

Ultimately, the future of Pakistan’s economy lies in the hands of its people and policymakers. Making informed choices based on critical analysis and open dialogue is crucial. Collaboration between various stakeholders, including government, businesses, civil society, and academia, is essential to chart a sustainable path forward. Embracing transparency, accountability, and evidence-based decision-making will be key to building a brighter economic future for all Pakistanis. 

Conclusion: A Call for Unity and Progress

The economic debate surrounding Imran Khan and the PDM government highlights the complex challenges and choices Pakistan faces. It is crucial to move beyond partisan narratives and focus on constructive solutions that address the needs of the people and ensure long-term economic prosperity. By fostering unity, promoting collaborative action, and making informed choices, Pakistan can navigate the current challenges and build a brighter future for its citizens.

Altaf Moti

Altaf Moti writes on diverse topics such as politics, economics, and society.

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