Pakistan is located at a junction where its strategic importance has been a huge factor in shaping its foreign relations. Due to its proximity to the Middle East and central Asian countries, it has become an epicenter of world rivalries_owing to which, in the war of others, the country itslef has been suffering. Hence, in the current multipolar world Pakistan has to be cautious in diplomatic relations.
The first and foremost challenge of foreign policy of Pakistan is maintaining balance between China and USA and their emerging cold war. China is undoubtedly, the biggest investor in Pakistan, with special reference to the CPEC. It has always stood by Pakistan on international forums and have supported the cause of Kashmir. While, at the same time, America is the biggest destination of Pakistani exports and one of the key international players. Meanwhile, both China and USA are rival of each other in soft power penetration and economic struggle.
Taking side of one country and set asiding the other is disastrous in diplomacy. Maintaining warm relations with both countries is a litmus test for Pakistan.
Relations with India owing to geostrategic geoeconomic spheres are always pertinent and have been challenging for the foreign policy makers of Pakistan. Indian allegations on cross border terrorism, Indian support to militant groups of Pakistan of which Indian spy Kulboshan Jhadev had admitted, Indian water terrorism, and Indian atrocities on the people of Kashmir and its annexation of occupied Kashmir have huge challenges for Pakistan. How to encounter these on international forums and daface the black face of Indian hostalities are major challenges. Whereas, at the same time, India is an emerging economy and there is huge potential of trade of billions of dollars between both countries ar a time when Pakistan is at the verge of economic decline. How to start trade and initiate dialogue are major oppugns for diplomatic bigwigs of Pakistan.
The India-America nexus is another challange for Pakistan. Both countries have been establishing economic and military pacts such as Beca, and the current agreement in which America has assured to provide Drones to India. Both have also been cooperating in geo_ spatial technologies. How to meet these, the exponents of Pakistan foreign policy must be thinking.
Pakistan is directly affected from the situation of Afghanistan. Terrorists infiltration from Afghanistan, the hideous of the TTP, and Baloch separatist groups there, have always been challenging for Pakistan. Since the Taliban 2.0 regime, though the situation in Afghanistan might not be suitable for Baloch insurgent groups but at the same time, the TTP attacks have increased. How to cease the opportunity and convince the Taliban to end terrorist hideouts in Afghanistan, the challange is ahead.
Mending ways with US after the Cypher controversy, after the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, the CPEC, the US agreements with India, and new IMF conditions is another foreign policy challenge for Pakistan. Meantime, bloc politics in Muslim world is continued where Saudi Arabia and Iran have been in neck to neck competition with each other. Although, the current mediation of China has cooled down the hostile relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, but still Pakistan needs holistic approchement with both states.
Pakistan is facing crucial foreign policy challanges. These expostulations need vibrant policies to maintain warm relations with Iran, USA, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. While, at the same time, it has to engage with the Taliban about the hideouts of terrorist groups. Meanwhile, the most important litmus test of foreign policy is how to encounter Indian brutalities and animosity against Pakistan, how to stop India agression in Kashmir, and how to start bilateral trade between both countries.