Pakistan’s Ongoing Challenge: Afghan Refugee Crisis And Its Multi-Faceted Impact – OpEd


Pakistan has long been a refuge for one of the world’s largest populations of displaced people, primarily comprising Afghan refugees. This influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan began during the Soviet-Afghan War, as millions sought shelter across the border. Initially considered a temporary solution, the protracted Afghan conflict and political instability have prevented their swift return. Consequently, many Afghan refugees and their subsequent generations have resided in Pakistan for decades.

Economic and Social Strain

Economic Challenges: The prolonged presence of Afghan refugees has imposed a substantial economic burden on Pakistan, straining already limited resources meant to meet the basic needs of both Pakistani citizens and Afghan refugees. This has led to financial stress for Pakistan.

Pressure on Infrastructure: The existence of millions of Afghan refugees has placed considerable strain on Pakistan’s infrastructure, particularly in border regions. Schools, healthcare facilities, and public services often struggle to meet the demands of both local residents and refugees.

Employment and Housing Issues: The influx of Afghan refugees has sparked intensified competition for jobs and housing, particularly in border areas. This heightened competition has given rise to socioeconomic challenges and tensions between host communities and refugees.

Security Concerns

Role of Refugee Camps: Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan have, on occasion, been exploited as safe havens for militants, providing cover for various extremist elements, thereby posing a threat to regional security.

Increased Security Threats: The presence of Afghan refugees has been associated with a rise in security threats, including cross-border attacks and other destabilizing activities. This has necessitated Pakistan’s reevaluation of its security concerns.

Border Management: Effectively managing the long and porous Pakistan-Afghanistan border is further complicated by the refugee issue, as the movement of refugees across the border has security implications that Pakistan must address.

Diplomatic Relations

Impact on Relations with Afghanistan: The Afghan refugee issue has at times, strained Pakistan’s relationship with Afghanistan. The Taliban governments have sought Pakistan’s support in ensuring the welfare of refugees, leading to diplomatic tensions over the years.

Relations with International Organizations and Donors: Pakistan’s hosting of Afghan refugees has been associated with international assistance and funding, potentially influencing the country’s relations with international organizations and donor countries.

Repatriation Efforts

Pakistan’s Initiatives: Pakistan has implemented various measures to facilitate the repatriation of Afghan refugees, including documentation processes, repatriation centers, and aid programs.

Challenges in Repatriation and Reintegration: The voluntary return of Afghan refugees to their homeland faces challenges, including the socio-economic reintegration of returnees, the security situation in Afghanistan, and issues related to land and property.

International Support and Cooperation: Pakistan’s efforts to repatriate Afghan refugees are supported by international organizations, particularly the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). International cooperation is essential to ensure the safe and dignified return of refugees.

Humanitarian Aspects

Impact on Afghan Refugees: Afghan refugees in Pakistan face complex humanitarian issues. While many have integrated into Pakistani society, some continue to live in camps under challenging conditions. Ensuring the well-being of Afghan refugees remains a priority.

Role of the United Nations and NGOs: International agencies, particularly the UNHCR, play a crucial role in addressing the needs of Afghan refugees and supporting repatriation efforts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also provide essential humanitarian assistance.

Ensuring a Safe and Dignified Return: The return of Afghan refugees to their homeland must prioritize their safety and dignity. Addressing their rights, access to essential services, and reintegration into Afghan society are critical aspects of repatriation efforts and the responsibility of the Taliban government.


In conclusion, Pakistan’s commitment to repatriating Afghan refugees is driven by a combination of economic, security, diplomatic, and humanitarian factors. Pakistan has carried a substantial burden by hosting this substantial refugee population for an extended period. While Pakistan remains dedicated to the repatriation of Afghan refugees, it faces numerous challenges in balancing national security, regional stability, and international cooperation in addressing the refugee crisis. Pakistan’s continued efforts in this regard are vital for ensuring a secure and dignified return for Afghan refugees while also addressing its own economic and security concerns. 

Khalid Iqbal

Khalid Iqbal is a BS student at NUML, Islamabad.

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