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Potential Of Indonesia As World Suppling Country For Shrimp

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Indonesia is a country that has abundant natural wealth, especially the wealth of marine resources. Indonesia is an archipelagic country and a maritime country, with around 17,500 islands and a coastline of 81,000 km. Around 62% of Indonesia’s area is sea and water, according to data from the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (KKP). The land area is 1.91 million km2 while the water area reaches 6.32 million km2 (Indonesiabaik.id, nd).

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This has made Indonesia designated as an archipelagic country starting from the Djuanda Declaration in 1957 and strengthened by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Indonesia also has characteristics as an international transportation route that connects the Asian continent, the west coast of America, and the European continent. With the privileges that Indonesia has as an international transportation route, this makes it easier for Indonesia to export marine products owned by Indonesia.

Currently, Indonesia occupies the second position of the largest fishery product-producing country with a total production of 24 million tons per year (BKIPM, 2020). In the Asia Pacific Region, Indonesia occupies 30 percent of 70 percent of the total fisheries in the Asia Pacific Region, where Indonesia is the country with the largest total fisheries in the Asia Pacific Region. Fishery products in Indonesia include shrimp, tuna, and other types of fish, squid, demersal fish, octopus, crabs, seaweed, tilapia, and others.

Of the marine fishery products produced by Indonesia, the quality of the fishery products has been recognized and accepted by up to 158 importing countries (Shaid, 2022). Based on data released by the ITC Trade Map, the export value of Indonesian fishery products in 2020 reached USD 5.2 billion or a positive growth of 5.7% compared to 2019 (Directorate General of Strengthening the Competitiveness of Marine and Fishery Products, 2021). The export destination countries for fishery commodities include the United States (US) which made transactions amounting to USD1.1 billion or 44.4% of the total export value.

Followed by China at USD 382.9 million or 14.8% of the total export value and Japan at USD 278.9 million (10.8%). Then ASEAN countries amounted to USD 270.1 million (10.4%), the European Union amounted to USD 132.0 million (5.1%), and Australia amounted to USD 55.2 million (2.1%) (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, 2021). This makes Indonesia an exporter country in the export of fishery products, thus bringing a positive impact on the country’s economy by increasing foreign exchange through the export value of fishery products.

From marine products exported by importers, shrimp is Indonesia’s leading export commodity to the world. In 2018 shrimp contributed foreign exchange of USD 1.3 billion or 36.96% of the total export value. The large value of Indonesian shrimp exports cannot be separated from the importing countries, the USA, Japan, the Netherlands and China are the main markets for Indonesian shrimp products. The four main importing countries of Indonesian shrimp almost control 85.62 percent of Indonesian shrimp products (Sholeh, 2018). Shrimp commodities exported include frozen shrimp, fresh shrimp, and processed shrimp.

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The type of shrimp that attracts importers is the type of Vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), this type of shrimp is in great demand from the United States market, this type of shrimp can be sold in small to medium sizes (about 15-25 grams per head), the price of Vannamei shrimp per kilogram reaches 80 thousand rupiahs. the second type of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), this type of shrimps is a type of native shrimp from Indonesia commonly known as tiger shrimp. Tiger shrimp have a relatively large body with a taste that is identical to sweet and savory, so it is much favored by food connoisseurs. types of tiger shrimp its main export markets are Japan and the European region. the third type is giant prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant prawns are often known as Fresh Water shrimp.

Giant prawns are a type of freshwater shrimp, this shrimp has the largest size among other Fresh Water shrimp. This type of giant prawn has a saturated fatty acid content that is not too high so it has a taste that is favored by food connoisseurs and is very good for consumption. Therefore, the high demand for fishery products, especially shrimp, makes Indonesia better known as the largest producer of fishery products and makes Indonesia an opportunity to become an exporter of fishery product export commodities, especially shrimp in the world.

*Ramadhan Dwi Saputra is a Research Assistant at Universitas Islam Indonesia

References

BKIPM. (2020, November 24). KKP. KKP | Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://kkp.go.id/bkipm/artikel/25535-peringkat-kedua-produsen-hasil-perikanan-pemerintah-indonesia-upayakan-peningkatan-ekspor

Direktorat Jenderal Penguatan Daya Saing Produk Kelautan dan Perikanan. (2021, August 16). KKP. KKP | Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://kkp.go.id/djpdspkp/artikel/33334-peringkat-indonesia-sebagai-eksportir-produk-perikanan-dunia-meningkat-di-masa-pandemi

Indonesiabaik.id. (n.d.). Indonesia Kaya Potensi Kelautan dan Perikanan | Indonesia Baik. Indonesiabaik.id. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://indonesiabaik.id/infografis/infografis-indonesia-kaya-potensi-kelautan-dan-perikanan

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. (2021, August 16). KKP. KKP | Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://kkp.go.id/djpdspkp/artikel/33334-peringkat-indonesia-sebagai-eksportir-produk-perikanan-dunia-meningkat-di-masa-pandemi

Shaid, N. J. (2022, January 18). Mengapa Indonesia Disebut Negara Maritim? Halaman all – Kompas.com. Money Kompas.com. Retrieved February 21, 2022, from https://money.kompas.com/read/2022/01/18/220000126/mengapa-indonesia-disebut-negara-maritim-?page=all

Sholeh, K. (2018, October 19). KKP. KKP | Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://kkp.go.id/djpdspkp/artikel/7947-kinerja-ekspor-produk-perikanan-indonesia-tahun-2018

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