Political Instability In Pakistan – OpEd


Pakistan, a country no stranger to political instability and terrorism, finds itself once again grappling with a deepening crisis of political uncertainty, economic volatility, and resurging terrorism.

The recent tensions between former Prime Government PTI and the army chief Gen. Asim Munir have only exacerbated an already precarious situation. Pakistan’s political landscape has long been characterized by a tumultuous nature, with periods of instability interspersed throughout its history. However, the previous year have been particularly turbulent, as the ousting of Prime Minister Imran Khan through a vote of no confidence and the subsequent formation of a new government have plunged the country into a severe economic and political crisis.

The power struggle between different political factions has caused widespread political uncertainty and public unrest, exacerbating the already fragile state of affairs. As the country navigates through these tumultuous times, it becomes imperative to analyze the underlying causes and consequences of political instability in Pakistan.

The influence of the military on political affairs has been a recurring theme in Pakistan’s history. Pakistan was formed as a democratic country in 1947, but its first decade was marked by political instability, weak governments, and a power struggle between different political forces, including the military and bureaucracy. In 1958, the military staged a successful coup, overthrowing the elected government and establishing military rule, which continued for several decades. 

The military has played a prominent role in shaping the country’s political landscape, often exerting its influence behind the scenes. This military intervention has resulted in power imbalances, weakened democratic institutions, and hindered the country’s path towards stable governance. The constant power struggle between civilian governments and the military has created a cycle of instability, where political parties, once in power, are reluctant to challenge military interference, fearing retaliation or a loss of support. This dynamic not only undermines the democratic principles but also perpetuates a culture of political uncertainty and mistrust among the general public

During the 1980s and 1990s, there were sporadic attempts to restore democracy, but these were often hampered by political unrest, corruption, and the continuing influence of the military. It was not until the late 1990s that a more sustained effort was made to establish a stable and functioning democratic system in Pakistan.

Since then, Pakistan has had several periods of democratic rule, with alternations of power between different political parties.

The impact of political instability extends far beyond the realm of politics. It directly affects the country’s internal security, with dire consequences for the safety and well-being of its citizens. Pakistan already grapples with a volatile security situation, exacerbated by the recent Taliban takeover of neighboring Afghanistan. The power vacuum created by the Taliban’s resurgence has emboldened extremist groups within Pakistan, posing a significant threat to national security. The rise in terrorism activities has not only claimed innocent lives but has also undermined the efforts to establish peace and stability within the region. Abdul Basit, a prominent security analyst, warns, “The ongoing political instability in Pakistan has further strained the country’s internal security apparatus, making it more vulnerable to terrorist activities.” The heavy presence of troops on the streets of major cities indicates the gravity of the security situation, as they are prime targets for terrorist attacks.

Years of propaganda and distorted narratives have shaped the understanding of the country’s challenges among its citizens, leading to a skewed narrative that focuses primarily on political corruption while overshadowing other pressing concerns such as low literacy rates, inadequate healthcare, and poverty. This narrative problem has created an environment ripe for conspiracy theories and misinformation, resulting in a misalignment of priorities and hindering efforts to address the root causes of political instability. Overcoming this narrative problem requires a collective effort from all stakeholders, including the media, civil society, and educational institutions, to promote a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by Pakistan.

A robust and inclusive democratic system is crucial in mitigating political instability. Creating a level playing field for all political parties, allowing fair competition and representation, is an essential aspect of strengthening democratic institutions. The International Crisis Group highlights the importance of enhancing democratic institutions and promoting electoral reforms, as it can help reduce political tensions and enhance the credibility of the electoral process. By ensuring transparency, inclusivity, and fairness in elections, Pakistan can lay the foundation for a more stable and democratic political system.

Corruption, another significant contributing factor to political instability, needs to be addressed effectively. Implementing measures to promote transparency and accountability is vital in combating corruption and restoring public trust in the political system. Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index underscores the correlation between corruption levels and political stability. By enacting and enforcing strong anti-corruption laws, establishing independent anti-corruption bodies, and ensuring their effective implementation, Pakistan can tackle this critical issue and create a more transparent and accountable governance framework.

Political instability often arises from a lack of communication and cooperation among state institutions and political actors. Encouraging dialogue and consensus-building is instrumental in fostering a unified approach towards governance and policymaking. The successful implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) in Pakistan, aimed at countering terrorism, serves as an example of the positive outcomes achieved through collaborative efforts among political parties, the military, and civil society. Such consensus-building measures can strengthen governance, improve decision-making processes, and contribute to long-term political stability.

Extremist ideologies and sectarian tensions pose significant threats to political stability in Pakistan. To address this challenge, comprehensive efforts must be made to counter radicalization and promote tolerance and inclusivity. Drawing from the example of the National Counter Extremism Policy in the United Kingdom, targeted interventions, community engagement, and de-radicalization programs can play a vital role in countering extremism. Customizing such programs to the Pakistani context and fostering a more tolerant and inclusive society can help mitigate the risks of political instability associated with extremist ideologies.

Addressing the underlying causes of political instability in Pakistan necessitates comprehensive reforms to improve governance, economic stability, and social welfare. Strong governance structures, equitable economic policies, and investments in education and healthcare are crucial in tackling the socio-economic disparities that contribute to instability. Research conducted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) emphasizes the positive correlation between good governance, socio-economic development, and political stability. By implementing structural reforms, promoting equitable economic growth, and prioritizing investments in key sectors, Pakistan can create a more stable and prosperous society.

To conclude, addressing political instability in Pakistan requires concerted efforts to overcome the narrative problem, strengthen democratic institutions, combat corruption, foster dialogue and consensus-building, counter extremist ideologies, and implement comprehensive reforms. These collective actions, guided by the principles of transparency, inclusivity, and democratic values, can pave the way for a stable and prosperous Pakistan. As Nelson Mandela once said, “It always seems impossible until it’s done.” Let us remain hopeful and resolute in our pursuit of a brighter future, where political stability, economic prosperity, and social harmony prevail. Together, we can overcome the challenges and forge a new narrative of hope, resilience, and progress for Pakistan and its people.

Muhammad Younus

Muhammad Younus is from Kalat, Balochistan and a student of University of Balochistan in final semester department of International Relations. His areas of interest foreign policy analysis, diplomacy, strategic studies, international political economy and national security policy.

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