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Ethics And Modern Management – Analysis

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Introduction

Leaders worldwide have adopted new management to go in line with the global culture and expectations. This form of management allows the leaders to be gentler and kinder to the business community they serve. Modern management requires leaders to be more collaborative as they bring better results than those that are less collaborative. This approach means that these leaders can solve a crisis or a dilemma in a win-win manner. These leaders or managers are forced to make painful and tough decisions to solve these dilemmas. Modern management requires leaders to have high levels of business ethics and formulate tools of strategic management. The leaders should also have better and effective delegation strategies in the workplace. This, coupled with effective behavior modification, will drive businesses and organizations to higher levels.

Business Ethics

The foundation of any business is to do what is right, not because it is what they are expected to do but because it is the right thing to do. This foundation gives a business the reputation of high ethical and legal standards that form its most significant asset or organization. Business ethics calls for companies and other organizations to comply with the law and concern others in society (Carroll, & Buchholtz, 2014). These businesses are also expected to abide by high integrity principles as they engage in their daily practices.

Business ethics helps businesses adopt business practices that follow the highest moral standards as they foster the best relationships with the community they serve. The business community is the most valued person in the business. For example, it is costly for the company to lose a customer for a short-term profit. Businesses abide by the high principles and moral standards of conducting business and build trust among the business community. A strong relationship with the supplier can be very beneficial to the organization. A company can’t provide to the needs of their customers without suppliers (Jeurissen, 2007). As an entrepreneur, one must be the role model for the employees and other business followers. For example, if an entrepreneur’s behavior is to keep lying to the customers, the employees will automatically follow in the footsteps that will compromise the business’s running. 

Business ethics helps organizations and businesses strive to conduct their businesses in ways that reflect the best conduct standards. This must be done collectively with all the organization members: the individual employees and the company in general. It requires regular training and communication that would enable linking the individuals to the organization’s values, vision, and behaviors (Fisch, 1966). The individuals who are the employees and other business associates, if they share common ideologies of the company, can help the company have excellent conduct standards. These ethics helps the company to sacrifice some of their business objectives to attain integrity in the organization.

The reputation for integrity is the primary sense of ethics in business. This means that the industry should always go for what is right for the organization and the business associates. As a result, the companies have a tremendous competitive advantage in the market if they allow business ethics and standards to control the organization (Cero, C., & Cero, T., 2009). Ethical behavior in an organization or business entails making the best business decisions that enhance the community’s expectations and image. In many instances, an organization is expected to have written codes of ethics to guide the people in making the best decisions.

The ethics of any business requires that everyone take their position in making decisions. This way, people will be restrained from jumping to conclusions that may indent the business’s image. Moreover, business ethics guides people as they seek more alternatives to approach a problem. This way, they come up with more than one solution that promotes the organization’s values and integrity (Cero, C., & Cero, T., 2009). The business manager may use these ethics as a platform to collect more information that will make the business more productive. Therefore, it is paramount for any company in the modern culture to have business ethics that promote integrity, values, and the organization’s vision.

The Main Strategy Formulation Tools of Strategic Management

The process of strategic management is more than the set rules that managers have to follow in managing the organization (Cero, C., & Cero, T., 2009). The managers on top of the chain must think strategically then move on to apply and implement this thought into a process. However, implementation of the strategic management process is possible when all the organization members or the business understand the strategy being implemented. Strategy formulation helps a business understand the appropriate action that would enable the organization to achieve its mission and objectives. Therefore, the managers must understand the essential tools in strategy formulation (Eden, & Ackermann, 2013). These tools include the critical question analysis, SWOT analysis, Porter’s model, and business portfolio analysis.

The management of the organization has to get involved in the process of strategic management. During this process, the leaders can analyze the organization’s environment and the best direction that the business should take. The process also allows the management to develop a realistic mission statement and the organization’s objectives (Hill, Jones, & Schilling, 2014). These objectives and the mission statements are critical, as they are the basis for the strategy formulation. The formulated strategies are a reflection of the organizational environment, lead to the attainment of the set objectives, and lead to the fulfillment of the organization’s mission. The tools used for strategy formulation are similar and related but are so distinct in their application.

Critical question analysis allows the management to answer questions regarding the objectives and purpose of the organization. This tool is also essential as the leadership evaluates its present direction (Hill, Jones, & Schilling, 2014). Moreover, the environment that the organization exists at that particular time is analyzed. This way helps determine the competitors and the ways to have a competitive advantage in the market. 

SWOT analysis is the common acronym used in organizations to represent strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. These are used as tools to formulate strategies as the management can match the external opportunities and threats with the existing internal strengths and weaknesses (Hill, Jones, & Schilling, 2014). If the managers evaluate all the dangers and disadvantages, strengths, and opportunities, automatically, they will have a strategy to guide them through the organization’s strategy.

The business portfolio analysis is another critical tool that managers use to formulate a strategy that would guide the organization to success. This technique is essential as it allows the managers to evaluate the organization’s philosophy, as is the investment portfolio case. This technique enables the managers to emphasize sound organizational activities and discard those that are unsound to the organization.

Porter’s industry analysis model is essential in formulating strategy due to the factors that the model emphasizes for businesses and organizations (Eden, & Ackermann, 2013). The model helps the managers learn and evaluate the industry forces that are essential in determining the competitiveness of the organization. For example, the managers may acquire new entrants in the industry, new or substitute products, and the supplier’s ability to control issues such as cost.

Guidelines for Making Delegation Effective In an Organization

As the organization or business grows, one needs to hand over some duties to someone else to concentrate on other business activities. It may be the best thing to do, but it is difficult to make since a slight mistake may cripple the organization. Many business owners feel that they need to do everything independently, making them think that it is done right. Other times, it becomes difficult for a business owner or a manager to get someone they can trust to delegate specific duties to the organization (Vabulas, & Snidal, 2013). However, some guidelines can guide these managers or business owners in delegating certain functions and get them done as they desire.

When delegating duties to an organization or business, the first step is to know what is to be delegated. In many instances, not everything can be delegated in a business. For example, it may be inappropriate to delegate duties or tasks that involve confidential or sensitive information of a client. This information can be leaked or misused by this person to harm the client or the business. Moreover, tasks that are not well defined may be hard to delegate.

The other most difficult but equally important step of delegation is the choice of whom to choose. It is not all the time that all people will meet the desired criteria. However, the person that is chosen must-have qualities for a successful relationship with the business owner. For instance, this person should be loyal and trustworthy. The work ethics and performance must be comparable to the one delegating the duties. The process of evaluating these characteristics may take time, but with discussions and consultations, the right decision can be made.

Delegation requires strict guidelines and instructions that must be followed to deliver on the task. Having documentation of the policies is as important as having business continuity planning. The documentation has details and the necessary information for the delivery of the delegation. However, it does not mean that after delegation, one leaves it there; they have to follow up and answer questions that may arise.

The delegation process is a tough one, and the delegating officer must be keen to track the work. The work tracking allows them to give feedback and improve on areas that are not entirely done. It makes sense to follow the delegated work to see that it is completed and done to the specifications. Writing off the delegated work may discourage the groups or individuals from taking other jobs assigned to them (Vabulas & Snidal, 2013). This work tracking does not mean that the delegating officer micromanages the work but monitors how it is being done. This way will help them make any improvements and feedback required.

Moreover, the delegation process should be kept ongoing to grow the confidence in those being delegated. The responsibilities will keep growing with the business, and one may become more committed. Therefore, the regular delegation will ease the duties they have to attend to other businesses.

 Reinforcement and Punishment 

Behavior modification can be defined as an effective therapeutic technique used to avert unwanted stimuli through reinforcement and punishment. The targeted individual or group is treated in a certain way that they change from unlikable behavior. For example, a child may develop a behavior of failing to do or submit assignments. The teacher or the parent will come up with ways such as punishment and negative reinforcement to help the child dissociate with the behavior (Lattal, & Perone, 2013). The environment and other aspects surrounding the individual or the animal externally control and behavior. Behavior modification is achieved by creating fear within an individual. 

Behavior that has been strengthened or reinforced in an individual is repeated and becomes part of its life. The behavior can be changed by employing several techniques that give the required outcome. Reinforcement is the technique used to strengthen particular behavior and ensure that the behavior will be repeated. The reinforcing agents can be both negative and positive. Punishment creates a response in the environment that prevents or discourages the likeliness of repeating a particular behavior (Lattal, & Perone, 2013). The main aim of punishment is to ensure that the behavior is weakened and completely extinguished.

Positive reinforcement is that which strengthens a particular behavior by giving consequences that are rewarding to the individual. For example, if an individual completes a certain amount of work and receives a salary increment gift, they are more likely going to repeat this behavior. This, therefore, strengthens this form of conduct, which will regularly be repeated. Negative reinforcement is the removal of the stimulus that strengthens a certain action. This reinforces a certain behavior by removing unpleasant experiences. For example, an employee may be told that some amount will be deducted from their salary if they fail to deliver on a specific job (Lattal, & Perone, 2013).  This reinforcement will encourage them to work harder to avoid losing a portion of their salary.

Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement as it eliminates or weakens a particular behavior. The discipline or the punished behavior is suppressed, as it is not easily forgotten. However, this punishment can return when the punishment is withdrawn or is no longer present. Discipline changes individuals’ behavior by creating fear and guides them towards the desired outcome (Lattal, & Perone, 2013). 

Positive punishment is used as a straightforward contingency to control the behavior of an individual. Positive discipline is aimed at instilling new stimulus to revive the conduct that may have gone down. Suppose a parent spanks a child for failing to do homework until the child begins taking their homework seriously. This is positive punishment, as the child will adopt behavior that they had abandoned before (Lattal, & Perone, 2013). Scientists and psychologists have accepted positive discipline as the best way to correct deteriorating behavior. Even though punishment involves pain, it may prevent the presentation of a particular stimulus from developing. The aversive and non-aversive stimuli may be handled through discipline, therefore regulating an individual’s behavior.

Conclusion

Reinforcement and punishment can have positive effects in shaping the behavior of individuals. This means that the desired conduct can be acquired by influencing an individual’s external and internal stimuli. Ethics is the standards that guide the business towards success. These standards help the company involve the business community and their associates in running the organization’s activities. Delegation of duties in a business can be the most challenging process in any organization. Some guidelines must be followed before choosing which tasks are to be delegated. The individual given the job should have the characteristics that meet those of the manager or the business owner. The instruction for the task being entrusted must be well stipulated. Managers need strategy formulation tools that will enable the organization to counter the competition in the market.

*Dr. Mustapha Kulungu is the Principal Researcher at the ILM Foundation Institute of Los Angeles, California. He graduated from Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, California. 

References

Carroll, A., & Buchholtz, A. (2014). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.

Cero, S. C., & Cero, S. T. (2009). Modern Management: Concepts and skills. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making Strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage.

Fisch, G. G. (1966). Modern Management. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada

Hill, C., Jones, G., & Schilling, M. (2014). Strategic Management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.

Jeurissen, R. (Ed.). (2007). Ethics & Business. Uitgeverij Van Gorcum.

Lattal, K., & Perone, M. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of research methods in human operant behavior. Springer Science & Business Media.

Vabulas, F., & Snidal, D. (2013). An organization without delegation: Informal intergovernmental organizations (INGOs) and the spectrum of intergovernmental arrangements. The Review of International Organizations8(2), 193-220. 

Dr. Mustapha Kulungu

Dr. Mustapha Kulungu

Dr. Mustapha Kulungu is the Principal Researcher at the ILM Foundation Institute of Los Angeles, California. He graduated from Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, California.

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