The Resurgence of Terrorism In Pakistan: How to Root Out Terrorism That Has Returned With A Vengeance – Analysis



Beginning this composition on a critical and intriguing subject with the famous maxim of Arundhati Roy, an Indian author and activist, “The only way to deal with terrorism is to understand why it happens”. (1) Likewise, Noam Chomsky, a renowned American philologist, historian, and social critic, said, (2) “Everyone is worried about stopping terrorism. Well, there is a straightforward way: stop participating in it.”

Currently, we are living in highly uncertain times where everything is continuously evolving, and the nature of conflict, war, and crimes have all evolved simultaneously. In temporary times, conflict, war, and crimes have taken the form of an organised menace that we today know by the expression “terrorism”. Many countries suffer from this menace worldwide.

Pakistan has been among the top ten countries enduring this evil for over three to four decades, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2022 report. Pakistan has suffered losses of approximately $126.79 billion and more than 80,000 human lives, both military and civilian, since the 9/11 attacks.


Pakistan has a protracted account of addressing terrorism, and eclectic efforts have been made to combat this hazard over the years. Some of the critical exertions and the backdrop of terrorism in Pakistan are as follows.

The (3) contemporary manifestation of terrorism can be attributed to the Soviet-Afghan War, a conflict in Afghanistan’s neighbouring country between 1979 and 1989. In conjunction with the United States and other nations, Pakistan assisted the Afghan mujahideen during their resistance against Soviet occupation forces in Afghanistan. Certain non-native combatants and groups, such as the Taliban, who received instruction and weaponry within Pakistan, ultimately withdrew from the nation. After the cessation of hostilities between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, the country experienced a period of civil unrest, ultimately leading to the establishment of Taliban rule. Throughout the 1990s, the Taliban gained significant prominence and achieved complete control of Afghanistan by 1996. The Taliban provided shelter and assistance to Al Qaeda and other extremist groups, posing a considerable menace to Pakistan’s national security.

The September 11, 2001 (4), terrorist attacks significantly influenced Pakistan’s counterterrorism endeavours and the ensuing War on Terror. After facing significant pressure from the global community, the government of Pakistan eventually became a participant in the “War on Terror,” spearheaded by the United States. The border regions of Pakistan have gained significance as a crucial partner in the conflict between Al Qaeda and the Taliban, owing to their ability to offer a secure refuge to terrorists.

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (5) have experienced military operations due to the significant presence of numerous militant groups in the North Waziristan agency. The operations mentioned above were executed internally within the agency. In that year, many military operations were executed to quell the insurgency in the tribal regions of Pakistan. The most special military operations in recent years include “Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad” in 2017 and “Operation Zarb-e-Azb” in 2014. Both of these actions were executed within the geographical boundaries of Afghanistan. The military operations were undertaken to dismantle the logistical and financial infrastructure of the terrorists, which formed the basis of their activities.

After the terrorist assault on an educational institution in Peshawar in 2014 (6), resulting in the deaths of more than 130 minors, the Pakistani administration initiated the National Action Plan (NAP). The National Action Plan (NAP) incorporated a thorough counterterrorism approach, emphasising the prevention of terrorist financing, suppressing hate speech and radical ideology, and restructuring the legal framework.

Pakistan has implemented several governmental institutions and anti-extremism laws (7) to counteract terrorism. Both of these measures were executed. The aforementioned measures encompass the federal Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) and the Counter Terrorism Departments (CTD) at the provincial level. These measures are being implemented to enhance intelligence collection, counterterrorism inquiry, and the legal pursuit of implicated individuals.

Pakistan has contributed to global efforts against terrorism through its collaborative actions. (8) The nation in question has engaged in capacity-building and counterterrorism training efforts and has received assistance from several countries, such as the United States, China, and Saudi Arabia.

The anti-terrorism strategy implemented by Pakistan has achieved notable progress; however, the government continues to confront several obstacles. The persistence of militancy across borders, extremism, and the presence of secure locations in the adjacent Afghanistan region are all factors that pose a threat to the safety and security of the nation. The Pakistani administration has accorded precedence to several counterterrorism endeavours to mitigate these apprehensions and guarantee domestic stability. Several measures have been implemented, such as military campaigns, intelligence exchange, and legislation modifications.

Problem Statement

The escalation in the frequency of terrorist attacks within Pakistan (9) is a matter of grave concern, given its potential to generate significant consequences for Pakistan and its neighbouring countries. The intricate historical path and diverse origins of the resurgence of terrorism in Pakistan, stemming from domestic and global factors, are two distinctive features of this phenomenon.

Pakistan has faced challenges in effectively addressing the threat of several domestic terrorist organisations since its inception. These entities have been held accountable for perpetrating assaults on non-combatants, law enforcement personnel, individuals belonging to underprivileged religious communities, and authorised governmental establishments. The Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other terrorist groups have been associated with many prominent attacks that have led to a significant loss of life and extensive material destruction. The attacks mentioned above occurred in both domestic and international settings. The surge in terrorist incidents in Pakistan has multifaceted implications that can be classified into discrete categories.

The utmost significance is placed on considerations about stability and safety. The probability of this occurrence having future implications poses a significant hazard to the security and peacefulness of Pakistan. Acts of terrorism can undermine the public’s trust in the government’s capacity to maintain law and order within the nation. This phenomenon has the potential to create a sense of discomfort, impede individuals’ mobility, and hinder the growth of the economy.

Terrorist attacks can have severe repercussions on non-combatant communities, (10) such as the tragic loss of innocent lives, the displacement of families, and the impairment of critical infrastructure. Individuals and communities that suffer from terrorist activities face various difficulties, such as enduring consequences in physical health, psychological welfare, and socioeconomic status, among others.

The interdependence between Pakistan’s domestic security and the region’s stability is significant. (11) The use of Pakistani land as a secure refuge by extremist groups and the influx of terrorists from neighbouring countries into Pakistan possess the capability to escalate hostilities with neighbouring nations, particularly Afghanistan and India. Strained diplomatic relations have the potential to result in two outcomes: an increase in regional tensions and an obstruction of peace and collaboration.

The financial implications that will ensue given the global impact of terrorism, businesses seeking expansion and increased investment face a daunting task. (12) The recurrent onslaughts pose a challenge in soliciting foreign investment, impeding trade, and disrupting commercial activities. The allocation of resources by the government towards counterterrorism measures has led to a diversion of funds that could have otherwise been utilised to advance economic growth or alleviate poverty.

The escalation of terrorist attacks in Pakistan has potentially facilitated the dissemination of extremist ideology and enlisting new adherents into radical groups. (13) Radicalisation may proliferate under circumstances where youth disengagement from their communities, economic inequality, and inadequate leadership prevail. The inability of young individuals to exercise their right to vote is regarded as a type of voter disenfranchisement.

Effectively addressing the escalating incidence of terrorist attacks in Pakistan requires a comprehensive strategy incorporating both military and nonmilitary measures. Implementing all-encompassing counterterrorism measures requires diverse tactics, including curbing extremist ideology, enhancing intelligence dissemination, regulating border security, conducting counterterrorism missions, and fostering economic development.

Purpose of Policy Paper

The proposed policy manuscript, provisionally named “Resurgence of Terrorism in Pakistan: How to Root Out Terrorism That Has Returned with a Vengeance,” seeks to provide practical recommendations for tackling the recent escalation in terrorist activities within the country. The objectives of this academic article are fourfold:

  1. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that have led to the resurgence of terrorism.
  2. To examine the changing dynamics of terrorist groups.
  3. To evaluate the effects of the resurgence of terrorism on various aspects of society.
  4. To conclude, by proposing strategies for addressing this problem. The purpose of this policy document is to present a comprehensive approach to combating terrorism by analysing the socioeconomic, political, and geographical factors that influence the recruitment methods and financial resources of terrorist organisations. Several strategies have been proposed to tackle the current issue, including but not limited to countering extremist ideology and its financing, enhancing security and intelligence measures, and resolving social and economic inequalities and grievances.
  5. The research highlights the significance of deploying and supervising appropriate mechanisms for ensuring the efficacy of the suggested tactics.

The primary purpose of this document is to support Pakistan’s ongoing endeavours in counteracting terrorism, with the ultimate goal of augmenting the safety and stability of the country in the foreseeable future.

Understanding the Re-emergence of Terrorism in Pakistan

The exacerbating terrorist threat in Pakistan may be attributed, at least in part, to the country’s declining social and economic conditions. Individuals residing in extreme poverty, unemployment, and inequality conditions may resort to extremist ideologies to acquire power or respond to the perceived injustices they are experiencing. The aforementioned phenomenon may be attributed to the concepts’ nature or the environmental factors surrounding the individuals. The susceptibility of a community to radicalisation may increase due to inadequate access to essential services and opportunities, such as medical care and educational prospects.

The current surge in terrorist attacks in Pakistan can be attributed to the country’s unstable political climate and ineffective leadership. Extremist groups have capitalised on governmental power vacuums due to the inadequacy of counterterrorism measures, widespread corruption, and poor law enforcement. The occurrence of terrorism is contingent upon an environment characterised by instability, which may arise from political animosity, ethnic tensions, and sectarian hostilities. The proliferation of terrorism is contingent upon the presence of an environment characterised by instability.

The escalation in the frequency of terrorist attacks in Pakistan can be attributed to various geographical factors, including its location and strained relationships with neighbouring countries. One of the contributing factors is the proliferation of nations where acts of terrorism are perpetrated. The presence of extremist groups in Afghanistan during the United States’ war in 2001 has resulted in a spillover effect that has attracted terrorists to Pakistan. In addition, regional conflicts and historical disagreements, such as the Kashmir conflict, have contributed to the emergence of terrorist groups and the proliferation of terrorist activities across national borders. This factor has been a contributing factor in both of these scenarios.

The research aims to examine the repetitive patterns that are present within terrorist organisations, along with their internal dynamics. (14) The recent escalation of terrorist incidents in Pakistan has given rise to novel groups that espouse a broad spectrum of political ideologies. The emergence of these novel organisations can be attributed to the recent surge in terrorist incidents. The TTP, an acronym for Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan, is a militant organisation in Pakistan that aims to establish a strict implementation of Islamic law. The endeavours of this particular group have often been prematurely terminated. The Baloch separatist movement has been successful in achieving nationalist objectives. Individuals from diverse backgrounds and professions who have lost faith in their current circumstances have been attracted to the objectives of the Islamic State (IS) to establish a presence in Pakistan. Individuals from various regions of the globe are present.

Terrorist groups operating within Pakistan have employed diverse methods of radicalisation and recruitment to augment their membership and increase their societal representation. An instance of this phenomenon is utilising various methods to manipulate public opinion, including disseminating online propaganda, inculcating religious beliefs, expressing political grievances, or airing political complaints. Although most madrasas do not overtly endorse terrorist activities, certain students have been radicalised due to their enrollment in Islamic institutions commonly referred to as madrasas. The use of social media platforms by militant groups to recruit new adherents and disseminate extremist beliefs is a recent development. It has been recognised that the use of social media by the younger demographic results in a highly receptive audience for the intended message.

Throughout their history, the terrorist organisations currently operational in Pakistan have had access to various funding and supply channels. Criminal activities encompass a range of illicit behaviours, such as the unlawful transportation of prohibited items, coercive demands for payment, abduction for monetary gain, and the distribution of controlled substances. Organisations can sustain their operations through the generous contributions of individuals in Pakistan and other nations who share their values and are committed to supporting their mission. There have been claims that the government supports or exhibits tolerance towards certain militant groups to promote its geopolitical objectives. The charges have had a consequential impact on implementing counterterrorism measures, further hindering their progress.

Assessing the Impacts of Terrorism Resurgence

The recent upsurge in terrorist operations within Pakistan has had significant and wide-ranging consequences, necessitating a meticulous examination of said effects. It begins with the premise that terrorist attacks have pervasive adverse impacts on society and civilisation. The term “humanitarian disaster” refers to a situation characterised by the loss of life among non-combatants, the forced migration of individuals, and the suffering endured by those who have managed to survive. Incidents of violence perpetrated against schools, churches, and other public venues have deteriorated social bonds, heightened anxiety and insecurity, and marginalised communities have borne the brunt of such attacks.

The resurgence of terrorism has significantly impacted the economic condition of Pakistan. (15) The government has implemented measures to discourage foreign investment and decelerate economic expansion, impacting corporate activities. Infrastructure impairment has resulted in significant monetary setbacks and impeded economic endeavours, particularly in countries plagued by armed conflicts. The reallocation of funds towards counterterrorism initiatives has strained the nation’s economic resources, reducing support for critical sectors such as social welfare, healthcare, and education.

The emergence of terrorism poses significant security concerns that have far-reaching implications. At the national level, it threatens the state’s stability and challenges maintaining law and order. Tense relations with neighbouring nations have arisen due to the provision of safe havens to terrorists and the cross-border movement of militants, particularly with Afghanistan and India. Consequently, escalating regional tensions pose a significant obstacle to resolving security challenges through collaborative regional efforts. An imperative for a concerted effort from the global community arises due to the potential for the proliferation of terrorism from Pakistan to its adjacent countries.

In order to formulate efficacious policies and strategies to mitigate the issue, it is imperative to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the humanitarian, social, economic, and security ramifications of the present escalation in terrorist operations within Pakistan. A comprehensive comprehension of the potential outcomes by policymakers can enhance their ability to mitigate adverse impacts, foster stability, and stimulate regional collaboration in the fight against terrorism.

Analysing the Existing Counterterrorism Framework in Pakistan

Pakistan’s anti-terrorism framework has undergone significant revisions and improvements due to years of experience addressing the threat of terrorism. An all-encompassing evaluation of antecedent counterterrorism policies and strategies underscores the subsequent pivotal measures and initiatives implemented by the Pakistani administration in its counterterrorism efforts.

In December 2014 (16), the National Action Plan (NAP) was introduced as a comprehensive policy to combat terrorism and extremism. The plan encompassed a range of strategies, including military operations, legal modifications, intelligence collaboration, and counter-funding measures. The initiative’s goals were to enhance the efficacy of the criminal justice system, fortify border security, oversee the activities of madrasas, curb the spread of hate speech and extremist propaganda, and establish regulations for madrasas.

The government of Pakistan has initiated numerous extensive military campaigns (17) against terrorist groups functioning within the nation. Operation Zarb-e-Azb, initiated in June 2014, primarily focused on Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other terrorist groups operating in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). The military campaign known as Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad was initiated in February 2017 to eradicate any residual terrorist groups or groups of concern throughout the nation.

Efforts were made to enhance intelligence gathering and inter-agency coordination through reforms implemented within the intelligence community. In 2009, the National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA) was established by the federal and provincial governments to facilitate the efficient exchange and coordination of intelligence.

The government of Pakistan has recently enacted legislation to bolster the country’s judicial system and establish a more robust legal framework to combat terrorism effectively. The Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) underwent modifications to enhance the capacities of law enforcement agencies, expedite judicial procedures, and furnish legal instruments to counteract terrorism effectively. In 2015, criminal offences related to terrorism were additionally delegated to specialised military tribunals.

Several financial surveillance systems have been implemented to address the issue of money laundering and other illicit forms of financing. (18) The Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) and the Financial Monitoring Unit (FMU) were instituted to enhance regulatory oversight of financial institutions, monitor suspicious financial transactions, and impede the flow of assets to terrorist organisations.

Pakistan has cooperated with foreign nations and international organisations as a critical strategy in combating terrorism. (19) The cooperation among various nations, such as the United States, China, and Saudi Arabia, has significantly contributed to the sharing of intelligence, enhanced capacity building, and facilitated coordinated operations against transnational terrorist networks.

Notwithstanding the Pakistani government’s dedication to counterterrorism, the present structure has encountered censure and obstacles. The study identified significant shortcomings, such as the perpetuation of extremist ideologies, inadequate intelligence sharing, insufficient allocation of resources for capacity building, and inadequate collaboration among security agencies. The proliferation of extremist ideologies has elicited apprehension regarding the infringement of fundamental human rights and the efficacy of military interventions.

The current anti-terrorism approach in Pakistan encompasses a range of tactics, such as military interventions, intelligence restructuring, legal and judicial initiatives, and global partnerships. In order to achieve a successful eradication of terrorism in Pakistan, it is imperative to conduct a thorough analysis of the existing framework. This analysis will serve as a foundation for the development of plans, which will involve the rectification of existing flaws and the enhancement of successful strategies.

Proposed Strategies to Root out Terrorism

To solve the problem of terrorism in Pakistan and prevent its resurgence, a wide range of approaches is needed. Every one of the options is vast and all-encompassing.

  • It is recommend that security forces should upgrade their monitoring and intelligence-gathering capabilities by investing in current surveillance strategies and technologies. Using cutting-edge surveillance, statistical analysis, and machine learning techniques allows us to foresee and stop these attacks before they happen. Intelligence gathering is effective when all parties involved work together. We need to make it possible for security services from different countries to share information and work together more efficiently by improving communication. We can do better by cooperating and coordinating with other nations to expose and disrupt terrorist networks.
  • Policies that distribute opportunities and resources more fairly are needed to solve economic inequality. Creating more jobs and reducing poverty can make the lower class more resilient and less likely to be swayed by extremist views.
  • The rage that leads to radicalisation can be mitigated if we implement programmes and steps to eliminate poverty and unemployment, especially in conflict-affected areas. Economic growth is facilitated by factors such as literacy rates, employment rates, and individual incomes.
  • The growth of churches and seminaries, Critical thinking, tolerance, and peaceful cohabitation should be emphasised in our nation’s classrooms and houses of worship. Human rights education, promoting religious tolerance, and rejecting radical ideology are proven strategies for reducing radicalisation among young people.
  • A welcoming community that respects and celebrates diversity can be achieved by promoting interfaith discourse. That will help improve group interactions and bring together people of different faiths. The role of civil society, community groups, and religious leaders in encouraging dialogue and mutual understanding is crucial.
  • By cracking down on underground financial systems, we can cut off terrorists’ access to funds. The transfer of funds to terrorist organisations may be slowed if banking regulations and controls were made more stringent. Anti-money solid laundering systems, strict regulatory frameworks, and enhanced financial institution recognition and reporting of questionable actions are all ways we can stop the funding of terrorism by facilitating the tracking of assets and implementing international freezes. Nations need to work together to identify and seize the assets of terrorist organisations. Criminal financial networks can be identified and disrupted with increased international cooperation, intelligence sharing, and information exchange.
  • Moreover, Examining the roles of regional, national, and international players is essential. Developing reliable connections with neighbouring countries like Afghanistan and India may be helpful in the battle against terrorism. A more secure region is possible by implementing bilateral agreements, coordinated border control, and intelligence-sharing channels.
  • The United States’ current approach against terrorism might be strengthened through international cooperation, involvement in global forums, and the sharing of successful strategies and information. Working together on a project is a great way to gain knowledge and speed up the implementation of ideas.     

If Pakistan takes these suggestions to heart, it can strengthen its counterterrorism operations, deal with the root causes of the problem, and bring greater peace and security to the region. Changes inside the institution, partnerships with external organisations, and close monitoring are all necessary for the smooth operation of these activities. Commitment, teamwork, and widespread support from all parties involved are crucial to the success of these undertakings.


In general, we have presented various solutions in this strategy brief to counteract the recent increase in terrorist activity in Pakistan. These tactics include collaborating with regional and international players, strengthening security and intelligence institutions, addressing societal inequities and grievances, opposing extremist beliefs and radicalisation, and combating terrorism financing and criminal networks. By following these measures, Pakistan would establish a comprehensive plan to combat terrorism and ensure the country’s long-term peace and security.

The importance of long-term commitment and cooperation in the battle against terrorism cannot be overstated. To counteract the revival of terrorism, the government, security services, civil society, religious organisations, and international partners must work together over time. Addressing the core causes of terrorism, destroying terrorist networks, and promoting peace and stability necessitates a concerted effort by many people working towards the same goals and consistently cooperating. Terrorism-related issues cannot be tackled without unwavering dedication and cooperation.

To tackle the terrorist threat, Pakistan must be watchful, adaptable, and tenacious. The policies addressed in this article should serve as a springboard for further research, development, and practical application. Community engagement, inclusivity, and investments in education and social development must be prioritised to encourage resistance to radical ideas.


  1. Education Program, “Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses Objectives of the Teaching Guide,” 2003,
  2.  Run Features First, “Power and Terror: Noam Chomsky in Our Times,”, 2002,
  3.  Nasreen Akhtar, “PAKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN, and the TALIBAN,” International Journal on World Peace 25, no. 4 (2008): 49–73,
  4. Mehr Khaliq Dad Lak National Coordinator NACTA National Coordinator NACTA, “Pakistan Journal of Terrorism Research,” December 2020,
  5.  Shuja Nawaz, “About the RepoRt,” 2016,
  6.  NACTA Government of Pakistan, “National Action Plan, 2014 – NACTA – National Counter Terrorism Authority NACTA Pakistan,”, 2014,
  7.  “Anti-Terrorism Laws in Pakistan – NACTA – National Counter Terrorism Authority NACTA Pakistan,”, n.d.,
  8.  MOFA Govt of Pakistan, “Transcript of the Press Briefing by the Spokesperson on Thursday 09 March 2023 – Ministry of Foreign Affairs,”, March 9, 2023,
  9.  Aarish Khan, “The Terrorist Threat and the Policy Response in Pakistan,” 2005,
  10.  Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism et al., “Understanding the Psychological Consequences of Traumatic Events, Disasters, and Terrorism,” (National Academies Press (US), 2011),
  11.  Pervaiz Cheema, “Security Threats Confronting Pakistan,” n.d.,
  12.  Arshad Ali, “ECONOMIC COST of TERRORISM: A CASE STUDY of PAKISTAN,” accessed June 12, 2023,
  13.  Kristina Hummel, “Extremism and Terrorism Trends in Pakistan: Changing Dynamics and New Challenges,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, February 18, 2021,
  14.  Diis Report, “DIIS REPORT,” December 2010,
  15.  Sheikh Fahad, “Economic Terrorism & Its Impact on Pakistan,” Stratagem, July 12, 2015,
  16.  NACTA Government of Pakistan, “National Action Plan, 2014 – NACTA – National Counter Terrorism Authority NACTA Pakistan,”, 2014,
  17.  Saleem Qamar Butt, “Terrorism in Pakistan,” The Nation, January 15, 2023,
  18.  Financial Monitoring Unit, “Financial Monitoring Unit (FMU) Government of Pakistan Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Related to Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs) for Reporting Entities,” accessed June 12, 2023,
  19.  Bureau of Counterterrorism, “Country Reports on Terrorism 2019,” United States Department of State, 2019,


  1. Akhtar, Nasreen. “PAKISTAN, AFGHANISTAN, and the TALIBAN.” International Journal on World Peace 25, no. 4 (2008): 49–73.
  2. Ali, Arshad. “ECONOMIC COST of TERRORISM: A CASE STUDY of PAKISTAN.” Accessed June 12, 2023.
  3. “Anti-Terrorism Laws in Pakistan – NACTA – National Counter Terrorism Authority NACTA Pakistan,” June 12, 2023.
  4. Bureau of Counterterrorism. “Country Reports on Terrorism 2019.” United States Department of State, 2019.
  5. Cheema, Pervaiz. “Security Threats Confronting Pakistan,” n.d.
  6. Education Program. “Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses Objectives of the Teaching Guide,” 2003.
  7. Fahad, Sheikh. “Economic Terrorism & Its Impact on Pakistan.” Stratagem, July 12, 2015.
  8. First, Run Features. “Power and Terror: Noam Chomsky in Our Times.”, 2002.
  9. Government of Pakistan, NACTA. “National Action Plan, 2014 – NACTA – National Counter Terrorism Authority NACTA Pakistan.”, 2014.
  10. Govt of Pakistan, MOFA. “Transcript of the Press Briefing by the Spokesperson on Thursday 09 March 2023 – Ministry of Foreign Affairs.”, March 9, 2023
  11. Hummel, Kristina. “Extremism and Terrorism Trends in Pakistan: Changing Dynamics and New Challenges.” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, February 18, 2021.
  12. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism, Adrienne Stith Butler, Allison M Panzer, and Lewis R Goldfrank. “Understanding the Psychological Consequences of Traumatic Events, Disasters, and Terrorism.” National Academies Press (US), 2011.
  13. Khan, Aarish. “The Terrorist Threat and the Policy Response in Pakistan,” 2005.
  14. Monitoring Unit, Financial . “Financial Monitoring Unit (FMU) Government of Pakistan Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Related to Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs) for Reporting Entities.” Accessed June 12, 2023.
  15. National Coordinator NACTA, Mehr Khaliq Dad Lak, National Coordinator NACTA. “Pakistan Journal of Terrorism Research,” December 2020.
  16. Nawaz, Shuja. “About the RepoRt,” 2016
  17. Qamar Butt, Saleem. “Terrorism in Pakistan.” The Nation, January 15, 2023.
  18. Report, Diis. “DIIS REPORT,” December 2010.

Taha Amir

Taha Amir is a student pursing a BS degree in Defense and Strategic Studies at Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad. Currently, he is an intern at The Consul Monthly Magazine. Moreover, he has also published articles for the London institute of Peace and research. ( ). He has recently completed his internship at ISPR (Interservice public relations) Pakistan Army Media wing

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