Aspects Of The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Education – Analysis


Artificial intelligence in education

Artificial intelligence (AI) is based on algorithms that allow machines to imitate a form of real intelligence. This innovative technology helps minimize error and improve user experience in various fields, including education. So, what are the role and impact of AI on education? (1)

In the field of education, it is possible to automate certain activities, particularly in terms of assessment corrections. Artificial intelligence also makes it possible to personalize learning according to the needs and assimilation capacities of each person. For example, this new technology can offer students exercises adapted to their learning level. (2)

In addition, AI can assist the teacher (without replacing him) and allows him to identify individuals in difficult situations in classes. This technology also allows teachers to free themselves from repetitive tasks, which helps them personalize and deepen their teaching methods. Artificial intelligence thus opens the door to adapted and customizable learning, making it possible to shape learning paths and guide them according to learner feedback. (3)

Potential of artificial intelligence in education

Artificial intelligence has the potential to revolutionize the way we think about education. From personalized learning algorithms to virtual and augmented reality, AI-powered tools and technologies are helping to enhance the learning experience for students in ways we never thought possible. (4)

AI can bring a wide range of benefits to education. One of the most important is the ability to personalize the learning experience for each student. Using AI, educators can analyze student performance and preference data to create personalized lesson plans and assessments that align with each student’s unique strengths and weaknesses. Additionally, AI can automate administrative tasks such as grading, allowing educators to focus on other important aspects of teaching. (5)

AI-powered tools and technologies can also enhance students’ learning experience in several ways. For example, virtual and augmented reality can make learning more interactive and immersive, while chatbots (6) and other AI-powered tools can provide support to students 24/7. Additionally, AI can be used to create personalized quizzes and games that help students engage with the subject in a fun and interactive way. (7)

Personalized learning (8) is one of the most exciting potential benefits of AI in education. With the ability to analyze data on student performance and preferences, AI can help educators create personalized lesson plans and assessments that align with each student’s unique strengths and weaknesses. This can improve student experience and motivation and ultimately lead to better academic outcomes. (9)

On the relevance of AI in education, Seo, K., Tang, J., Roll, I. et al. argue: (10) 

“Artificial intelligence (AI) systems offer effective support for online learning and teaching, including personalizing learning for students, automating instructors’ routine tasks, and powering adaptive assessments. However, while the opportunities for AI are promising, the impact of AI systems on the culture of, norms in, and expectations about interactions between students and instructors are still elusive. In online learning, learner–instructor interaction (inter alia, communication, support, and presence) has a profound impact on students’ satisfaction and learning outcomes. Thus, identifying how students and instructors perceive the impact of AI systems on their interaction is important to identify any gaps, challenges, or barriers preventing AI systems from achieving their intended potential and risking the safety of these interactions. To address this need for forward-looking decisions, we used Speed Dating with storyboards to analyze the authentic voices of 12 students and 11 instructors on diverse use cases of possible AI systems in online learning. Findings show that participants envision adopting AI systems in online learning can enable personalized learner–instructor interaction at scale but at the risk of violating social boundaries. Although AI systems have been positively recognized for improving the quantity and quality of communication, for providing just-in-time, personalized support for large-scale settings, and for improving the feeling of connection, there were concerns about responsibility, agency, and surveillance issues.“

AI and ChatGPT can revolutionize academic research by rapidly processing and analyzing large amounts of data, uncovering new findings, generating hypotheses, and conducting literature reviews faster than traditional methods. ChatGPT can help researchers write papers by providing comments and suggestions, and even generating parts of the text. Additionally, it can be used in natural language processing like text summarization, sentiment analysis, and language translation for unstructured data analysis. (11)

However, it is important to note that these capabilities must be used in conjunction with human intelligence, as AI and ChatGPT can only provide suggestions and assistance, and the final decision and responsibility for the results always lies with the researchers. (12)

Artificial intelligence in higher education

In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in higher education to incorporate modern technologies and practices in order to improve the overall educational experience. Learning management systems, gamification, video-assisted learning, virtual and augmented reality are some examples of how technology has improved student engagement and educational planning. Let’s talk about AI in education. The classroom response system allowed students to answer multiple choice questions and instantly participate in real-time discussions. (13)

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Despite the many benefits that technology has brought to education, there are also concerns about its impact on higher education institutions. With the rise of online education (14) and the increasing availability of educational resources on the Internet, many traditional universities and colleges are concerned about the future of their institutions. (15) As a result, many higher education institutions need help keeping pace with rapid technological change and are looking for ways to adapt and stay relevant in the digital age. (16)

In this regard, Kathryn Conrad writes: (17)

“The pressure to “teach with” generative tools has continued to mount, driven partly by technology companies that have long perceived education as a lucrative market. However, in producing these much-hyped commercial tools, these companies neither focused on education nor consulted with educators or their students. Not only designed without consideration of educational goals, practices, or principles, these models emerge from a technocratic landscape that often denigrates higher education, imagines teaching to be a largely automatable task, conceives human learning as the acquisition of monetizable skills, and regards both students and teachers as founts of free training data. This disregard for experienced professionals reflects Big Tech’s tendency to ignore domain experts of any kind.”

You’ve probably already heard of ChatGPT, the AI chatbot developed by OpenAI, which has taken social media by storm. But what is ChatGPT (18) and why is everyone talking about it?

ChatGPT is a computer program designed to understand and respond to human language in a natural and human way. It is a virtual assistant or chatbot capable of understanding and responding to written or spoken language. It was trained from a large set of texts from the internet and can be used for various tasks such as answering questions, translating languages and even writing creative texts.(19) For example, it could be used in education to create an intelligent tutoring system that can understand and respond to student requests, or in customer service to help people answer their questions. (20) 

AI-powered tools are also used to automate administrative tasks, such as grading assignments and providing feedback. Additionally, AI is used to analyze large amounts of data to identify patterns and insights that can inform the development of new educational strategies and policies.

There are many examples of AI-powered educational tools and platforms that are currently being used successfully. (21)  Among the most popular are:

  • Duolingo: a language learning app that uses AI to personalize lessons for each user;
  • ALEKS: an AI-powered math learning platform that provides adaptive assessments and personalized learning plans; and
  • Coursera: which uses AI to recommend courses to students based on their interests and learning history.

While the use of AI in education has many advantages, its limitations and challenges must be addressed. One of the biggest challenges is ensuring that AI-powered tools and platforms are accessible to all students, regardless of their socioeconomic status or location. Additionally, some fear that AI will perpetuate existing biases and discrimination in education. (22)

Dr Philippa Hardman writes on AI divide and bias in education what follows: (23)

“AI has often been hailed as a powerful tool for the democratisation of education.

Many of us who work in the world of AI & education are motivated by the vision that AI can make better education available to more students and, in the process, increase social mobility and equity.

Millions of students around the world are already starting to benefit from the use of AI in education, but millions more are not.

My initial research suggests that just six months after Open AI gave the world access to AI, we are already seeing the emergence of a significant AI-Education divide.

If the current trend that continues, there is a very real risk that – rather than democratising education – the rise of AI will widen the digital divide and deepen socio-economic inequality.”

Additionally, many educators fear that AI-powered tools will replace human interaction and affect the quality of classroom teaching. It will be important in the years to come to ensure that AI is used in ways that complement, not replace, human educators.

The impacts of Artificial Intelligence on education

Based on an educational triangle (the teacher, the learner and knowledge), it is possible to categorize the impacts of AI on education.

Cyber brain Computer artificial intelligence

Impact of AI on teachers

AI ensures the development of several technologies that are likely to replace predictable and repetitive tasks for teachers. For example, this involves automating certain tasks with little added value, such as exam corrections which consume a lot of teachers’ time. However, the teacher’s work goes well beyond the spectrum of automatable tasks. Beyond being a master transmitter of knowledge, the 21st century teacher is a guide to students and a creator of a learning environment. Empathy, kindness, cognitive flexibility and critical judgment are all human qualities that are difficult to reproduce in artificial intelligence, which plays a role of assistance rather than replacement. (24)

Impact of AI on students

For several years, MOOCs (25) have enjoyed great success with students who can learn what they want, when they want and, above all, at the pace that suits them. However, the freedom of choice and abundance of opportunities can create confusion about what to learn. AI can help prevent this phenomenon while offering sequences of exercises or lessons that are more relevant to the student. Also, smart tutors could predict when the student starts to lose interest and warn their teachers, to prevent a possible drop in motivation.

Impact of AI on knowledge

The impact of artificial intelligence on knowledge appears to be at two levels: firstly, the training that students should receive to understand and use AI. (26) Then there is the knowledge that humans should have to live in a world where AI is set to become omnipresent, in an increasingly digitalized world. It is therefore important that teaching programs adapt to this in order to meet students’ need for expertise or development of critical thinking.

AI in education: the pros and cons of integrating technology into the classroom

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made remarkable advances in many fields, including education. Incorporating AI into the classroom offers many benefits, but also has some drawbacks. 

Benefits of AI in Education

One of the main benefits of using AI in education is the ability to tailor the learning experience to each student. AI tools can analyze each student’s strengths, weaknesses, and learning styles to create personalized learning plans. This allows students to learn at their own pace and in the way that suits them best, resulting in better understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. Personalization of learning

Teachers can use AI to personalize learning based on individual student needs. Algorithms can assess the skills and weaknesses of each student. They can provide activities and content tailored to their level of understanding. (27)

2. Increase in teaching efficiency

AI can help teachers better understand how students learn and adjust their teaching accordingly. Algorithms can also help teachers quickly assess student work. They can give personalized feedback and track their progress. (28)

3. Access to a significant amount of data

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AI can be used to collect and analyze data on student learning, allowing teachers and administrators to better understand teaching challenges and opportunities. This can help identify areas that need attention and develop action plans to improve student learning.

4. Cost-reduction

AI can reduce costs by automating administrative tasks such as lesson planning and exam grading. This allows teachers to focus more on teaching and planning educational activities. In this regard, Dianne Adlawan argues: (29)

‘’ Using AI in Education can also reduce the cost of education from an educational institution’s perspective, and quite significantly if used to its potential. AI can automate a number of tasks assigned to administration, teachers, IT, and more. For example, AI can take on daily tasks such as grading, scheduling, data management, and even tutoring. With AI in education, educational institutions can save on budget by cutting down resources required to operate efficiently, thereby increasing cost-effectiveness.’’

Disadvantages of AI in education

While AI in education has many advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. One of the main drawbacks is the risk of over-reliance on AI systems. Although AI algorithms are designed to support and enhance learning, they cannot replace the role of human teachers. The interaction and guidance provided by teachers is invaluable and cannot be fully replicated by AI. 

As to what concerns this relevant issue, Promothean writes: (30)

‘’The recent explosion of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology into mainstream consciousness brings a lot of questions. While many recognize the potential good in these apps and devices, we have to explore the potential harm these ever-changing technologies could cause, too.

No one field stands to be more radically changed by the introduction of AI than education. Software such as Chat-GPT has already elicited strong negative reactions  – raising many debates about the negative impact of AI on education.’’

1. Risk of decline in human interaction

Using AI in the classroom can reduce human interaction between students and teachers. This can affect students’ ability to develop important social skills such as collaboration, communication, and empathy.

2. Risk of algorithmic bias

The use of AI in education presents challenges that need to be considered. First, it is worth pointing out that AI can be influenced by unconscious biases in the data it uses to make decisions. (31) Indeed, this can have negative implications for students if algorithms do not take cultural, linguistic and socio-economic diversity into account. Therefore, it is essential that educators and policymakers continually evaluate the impacts of AI on education to minimize the risks associated with these biases. Additionally, it is important to recognize that AI should be seen as a complement to human teaching, rather than a complete replacement, to ensure a high-quality learning experience for learners.

On this point, Ryan S. Baker and Aaron Hawn write: (32)

“We discuss theoretical and formal perspectives on algorithmic bias, connect those perspectives to the machine learning pipeline, and review metrics for assessing bias. Next, we review the evidence around algorithmic bias in education, beginning with the most heavily-studied categories of race/ethnicity, gender, and nationality, and moving to the available evidence of bias for less-studied categories, such as socioeconomic status, disability, and military-connected status. Acknowledging the gaps in what has been studied, we propose a framework for moving from unknown bias to known bias and from fairness to equity. We discuss obstacles to addressing these challenges and propose four areas of effort for mitigating and resolving the problems of algorithmic bias in AIED systems and other educational technology.”

3. Risk of job loss for teachers

The automation of certain administrative tasks may result in the reduction of certain positions for teachers. While this can reduce costs, it can also reduce the quality of education. Students then risk losing human interaction with teachers.

4. Need for significant technical resources

Using AI in the classroom requires significant technical resources, such as computers, software and networks.

Challenges and concerns of AI in education

Web Network Technology Developer Touch Finger Banking

While there are many benefits to using AI in education, ethical considerations must also be taken into account. One of the main concerns is the risk that AI will perpetuate existing biases and discrimination in education. Additionally, there are concerns about the impact of AI on student privacy and data security.

Educators also highlighted the chatbot’s ability to generate relevant responses to assessment and exam questions. Additionally, it is often not possible to attribute these answers to a particular source, making it difficult to detect plagiarism.

Another concern is the risk of job displacement in the education sector as technology advances. With the automation of many administrative tasks, the number of jobs available for educators and support staff may decrease.

Ensuring all students have equal access to AI-powered education is also a challenge that must be addressed. With the increasing availability of online education and educational resources over the Internet, it is important to ensure that all students, regardless of their socioeconomic status or location, have access to these resources. (33)

1. Questionable consequences of the use of AI in teaching

Some arguments suggest that the use of AI in teaching may lead to a decline in academic standards. Indeed, certain behaviors and consequences raise questions.

Reflection on the impoverishment of academic requirements

AI may encourage an overly standardized approach to teaching and assessment, where student skills and performance are reduced to quantitative measures. This can overlook the diversity of individual talents, learning styles and interests, leading to a loss of richness and creativity in education. This can encourage learning focused on finding correct answers rather than understanding concepts in depth.

On the subject of possible banning AI from schools, Fabienne Serina-Karsky and Gabriel Maes write in Numerama: (34)

“The recent example of ChatGPT shows us that some establishments banned it for fear that this tool would facilitate cheating and lead to a decline in academic standards, while others welcomed it into their classrooms because it seemed to them impossible to fight against these technologies – and fight a losing war. Both positions are defendable.” 

Over-reliance on AI by students

Generative text AI can facilitate research and writing of academic works. However, as students rely solely on answers generated by chatbots or virtual assistants, they lose the opportunity to question, analyze and develop their own ideas independently. AI tools can foster a tendency to prioritize finding answers over deep understanding of concepts.

Finally, the use of text generative AI can lead to uniformity of results and a loss of diversity in artistic, literary or other productions.

Inequality of access and use of AI

Not all students have equal access to the technologies needed to benefit from AI, which can further widen the digital divide. It is essential to ensure that AI does not reinforce existing inequalities by ensuring equitable access to tools and taking steps to close technology gaps.

2. Confidentiality and security of compromised data

The use of AI involves the collection and analysis of personal data on students: first name, last name, email address, browsing history, learning preferences, academic results, etc.

Computer Artificial Intelligence Ai Dall-E Chatgpt

Which raises concerns about the confidentiality, security and processing of this data. It is essential to have data protection measures in place to ensure that learners’ personal information is not compromised.

Users must be informed of the data collected, how it is used and have control over their personal information. Privacy policies and informed consents are essential aspects to ensure responsible and transparent data collection.

On the pertinent issue of confidentiality and security in AI education, William Villegas-Ch and Joselin García-Ortiz write: (35) 

“The rapid expansion of artificial intelligence poses significant challenges in terms of data security and privacy. This article proposes a comprehensive approach to develop a framework to address these issues. First, previous research on security and privacy in artificial intelligence is reviewed, highlighting the advances and existing limitations. Likewise, open research areas and gaps that require attention to improve current frameworks are identified. Regarding the development of the framework, data protection in artificial intelligence is addressed, explaining the importance of safeguarding the data used in artificial intelligence models and describing policies and practices to guarantee their security, as well as approaches to preserve the integrity of said data. In addition, the security of artificial intelligence is examined, analyzing the vulnerabilities and risks present in artificial intelligence systems and presenting examples of potential attacks and malicious manipulations, together with security frameworks to mitigate these risks. Similarly, the ethical and regulatory framework relevant to security and privacy in artificial intelligence is considered, offering an overview of existing regulations and guidelines”

Information Privacy in Education: Recording conversations

AI may collect personal data when processing natural language, for example when communicating with chatbots or virtual assistants. Exchanges of messages or conversations can be analyzed to understand your needs, answer your questions or provide you with relevant information.

Smart sensors and devices

AI can also collect data from sensors and smart devices such as cameras, microphones or wearables. These devices can collect contextual information about your environment, movements, habits, heart rate, etc.

Data from external sources

AI may also collect personal data from external sources, such as social networks, public databases, credentials provided when registering for services, etc. This data can be used to enrich user profiles and improve the personalization of experiences.

Human learning is difficult to duplicate

Human learning is a complex process that involves cognitive, emotional and social aspects. Although AI can be useful for some specific tasks, it cannot yet fully replicate the complexity of human learning. It is important to recognize the limitations of AI and not completely substitute human interaction in teaching.

3. Complexity of human learning as a whole

Human learning is a holistic process (36) that encompasses cognitive, emotional, social and physical aspects. AI focuses primarily on cognitive aspects and may not fully take into account the emotional and social dimensions of learning. Human interactions, such as class discussions, debates, group activities, are essential to foster in-depth understanding and practical application of knowledge.

Need for experiential learning

Human learning is often enhanced by practical experience. (37) Learners can interact with the real world, conduct experiments, solve real-world problems, and apply their knowledge in real-world contexts. Although AI can simulate learning situations, it cannot fully replicate the richness and diversity of real experiences

Need for social and collaborative learning

Human learning is also shaped by social interactions and collaboration with peers. Discussions, exchange of ideas, debates and cooperation are important elements of knowledge construction. AI can facilitate collaboration, but it is essential to promote social interactions between learners for more comprehensive and diverse learning.

4. The limits of ChatGPT, text generative AI

artificial intelligence woman

Although ChatGPT can generate consistent responses in many cases, it can also be prone to errors and inconsistent responses. It can sometimes produce answers that appear correct but are actually false or misleading, because it lacks the ability to actively verify the information.

Human training bias

ChatGPT is trained specifically with human dialogues, including conversation examples collected from users (forum, chat, etc.). ChatGPT does not verify the veracity of information collected in human conversations.

Bias of the data collected

ChatGPT uses information found on the internet. The reliability of sources is called into question when ChatGPT is documented on forums, social networks, participatory encyclopaedias (e.g. Wikipedia). (38)

Therefore, it is essential to take ChatGPT answers with caution and verify them with reliable sources. When using ChatGPT or any other information source, it is recommended to cross-reference information, consult reputable sources, and check facts to obtain a more accurate and reliable understanding of a given topic. (39)

On the topic of whether artificial intelligence can replace teachers, Management & Datascience writes: (40)

’Some already imagine the world of tomorrow without teachers: “In the near future, traditional classrooms will be replaced by virtual classrooms where students will connect remotely via connected devices. Sophisticated AI programs will be used to provide highly personalized teaching tailored to each student using speech recognition and natural language processing algorithms. AI programs will be able to monitor each student’s participation and performance in real time and provide feedback to help them improve.”

AI cannot completely replace the teacher

Successfully integrating AI into education requires balancing the capabilities of AI with the unique aspects of human learning. It is important to ensure that human interactions, reflection, practical experience and collaboration remain at the heart of the learning process.

The benefits of AI in education

In this modern world, the integration of AI technology is growing rapidly in education. AI is there to assist us and alleviate our daily tasks. With proper promptness, any activity you want to do will be accomplished in seconds. This is just one of the many benefits of AI, let’s discuss it further!

1. Improved student engagement and motivation

Using AI applications in education can enhance the learning experience in many ways, such as personalized learning exercises through AI algorithms or instant feedback and communication through to natural language processing by AI. AI can also be used to enhance game-based learning, which can make learning even more enjoyable, engaging and rewarding. Using AI tools can help educators use a more interactive teaching approach, which can result in increased engagement and motivation in the classroom, as well as improved learning objectives.

2. Improve student performance

Another important benefit of artificial intelligence in education is that it can help improve student performance through better feedback. AI-powered systems can assess student progress, provide them with targeted feedback, and identify areas in which they need to improve. Additionally, AI can monitor student behaviors, assess their attention levels, and determine whether they need additional help in certain subjects, specific areas, or specific skills. Instant, AI-powered feedback and enhanced learning experiences should enable students to reach new heights.

3. Profitable learning

The use of AI in education can also reduce the cost of education from the educational institution’s perspective, and quite significantly if used to its maximum potential. AI can automate a certain number of tasks assigned to administration, teachers, IT, etc. For example, AI can take over everyday tasks like grading, programming, data management, and even tutoring. With AI in education, educational institutions can realize budget savings by reducing the resources needed to operate effectively, increasing profitability.

4. Long-term continuous evaluation and improvement

The last point on our list of AI benefits is continuous evaluation and improvement. AI-powered EdTech tools can easily collect, analyze and provide reporting data to teachers on learning outcomes and student behavior patterns. Using predictive analytics, AI can provide educators with valuable insights to predict future performance, provide personalized interventions, quickly identify at-risk students, and refine teaching strategies.

On the topic of the use of AI in assessment, Snehnath Neendoor writes: (41)

“Artificial Intelligence (AI) touches every walk of life, including the education sector. By 2024, it is predicted that over 47% of learning management systems (LMS) will be powered by AI capabilities. Teachers, trainers, and education facilitators will leverage AI to deliver enriched, personalized learning experiences. 

The use of AI in higher education is helping educators deliver learning in an efficient, sustainable, and scalable manner. It is now also assisting educators in addressing several assessment challenges, an important activity in the learning cycle.”

The disadvantages and challenges of AI in education

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For everything in this world to be balanced, there must be pros and cons, and AI is no exception. What can become a challenge in the field of AI and which we can consider as disadvantages? Let’s continue with the identification.

1. Threat to teachers’ job security

Firstly, the threats to the job security of teachers. This is not yet the case, but there are concerns that the progress and adoption of AI will impact the need for certain functions in education. If AI continues to automate more and more aspects of the educational process, there may be less demand on human educators, which could translate into both improved productivity and potential job losses.

2. Dehumanized learning experience

One of the main drawbacks of AI in education is that it can dehumanize the learning experience. With AI algorithms generating content and deciding the pace of lessons, students may not benefit from the nuanced approach that a human teacher can offer. Additionally, AI algorithms can perpetuate bias, meaning they may fail to provide an inclusive and diverse curriculum tailored to the needs of each student.

Referring to this particular topic, Helen Nissenbaum and Decker Walker write: (42)

“What should educators do to reduce the risks of dehumanization? They cannot, practically speaking, bar computers completely from schools, but this would seem to be an over-reaction anyway. The threats from dehumanization are not yet widespread or grave, and the case for worrying, while persuasive, is not airtight. Educators could reduce the rate at which schools acquire and use computers. While this seems at first to be a prudent and feasible course of action, it is indiscriminate…”

3. Costly implementation for teachers

Another disadvantage of AI in education is that it can be costly for teachers to implement. Not all schools and educational institutions have a dedicated budget for investment in AI tools and technologies. Furthermore, the cost of massively introducing AI into schools may be too high at present. If the cost is borne by the teacher, it can be expensive and difficult to maintain.

4. Dependence on technology

As schools rely more and more on AI-powered solutions, teachers and students risk becoming overly dependent on technology. In the long term, this reliance could lead to neglect of important traditional teaching methods and the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Human intervention: The role of teachers

Artificial intelligence is playing an increasingly important role in transforming the way students learn and teachers teach. However, as with any innovation, there are pros and cons to AI when it is incorporated into the classroom and when there are too many challenges to face in the classroom, that is where human intervention is supposed to intervene.

The question now is: what important role should teachers play in ensuring that students’ use of AI for educational purposes remains moderate?

  • Teachers and AI can collaborate in co-teaching scenarios, where AI systems can assist with teaching, assessment, real-time feedback, and tutoring, while teachers offer guidance, interpretation, and deeper engagement with the material.
  • The role of teachers as mentors, motivators and facilitators of learning will remain essential. Teachers bring human connection, empathy, social-emotional skills, and the ability to encourage creativity and critical thinking, all of which cannot be replicated by AI.
  • Collaboration between teacher and artificial intelligence will harness the power of technology while preserving the invaluable human elements of education.

As simple as it may seem, teachers can still have the power to set rules and boundaries in the classroom. Establish a strict rule prohibiting the use of the Internet in all face-to-face course activities and allow students to think freely and creatively using the knowledge acquired in previous courses.

Given these pros and cons, it is also essential that EdTech companies and schools work together to create a balanced approach to AI in education. Teachers play a crucial role in this effort by understanding how to best integrate AI tools into their teaching, while maintaining their primary role as educators.

On the importance of human intervention in education, Johnathan Tarud argues quite rightly: (43)

‘’Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a potent tool that can help businesses in all sectors make better strategic decisions, but as Artificial Intelligence becomes more capable, the need for human intervention becomes more evident. Technology is still not at the point where it can fully mimic the human mind and decision-making process, but AI and Machine Learning tools have advanced to the point where they are trusted with critical tasks and decisions.“

A Brookfield Institute report indicates that early childhood educators, preschool, elementary and secondary school teachers are among the five jobs least likely to be affected by automation. (44) AI naturally leads to the development of several technologies that are likely to replace repetitive and relatively predictable tasks of teachers’ responsibilities. However, the work of the 21st century teacher goes far beyond the spectrum of automatable tasks. Beyond being a master transmitter of knowledge, teachers can be creators of learning environments and guides to students.

Humans have qualities that are difficult to reproduce in AI; here we are talking about empathy, kindness, critical judgment and cognitive flexibility. In other words, the soft skills (45) of teachers will largely be what distinguishes them from AI. Thus, jobs that affect human relationships would benefit from a certain protection from a hypothetical replacement by a robot equipped with strong AI. This is true for reasons of technological limits, but also because humans could potentially prefer interaction with a fellow human rather than with an AI.

AI in academia: Innovation for research and higher education

Universities prepare today’s students for the changes in tomorrow’s world. Several emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and Data Science, which significantly accelerate scientific discoveries, are poised to become one of the new pillars of higher education and research establishments. The world’s leading universities are implementing supercomputers, workshops and academic programs that leverage NVIDIA GPUs to provide students, faculty and researchers with necessary AI tools. 

The NVIDIA Deep Learning Institute (DLI) puts AI training resources directly in the hands of students, researchers, and instructors. With hands-on experience with the latest technologies, students can see first-hand how NVIDIA GPU-powered supercomputers and factories are delivering significant processing gains to train next-generation compute-enabled workers. 

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Linköping University has designed Sweden’s fastest AI supercomputer, based on NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD™ infrastructure. New BerzeLiUs supercomputer will deliver 300 petaflops of AI power to implement advanced deep learning models and cutting-edge AI research projects, while accelerating Swedish AI research at academic and industrial levels.

On the use of AI in academia, Carlo Ruiz writes: (46)

“Building a leading AI supercomputer usually can take years of planning and development. But by building BerzeLiUs with NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD technology, Linköping will be able to deploy the fully integrated system and start running complex AI models as the new year begins.

The system will be built and installed by Atos. Initially, the supercomputer will consist of 60 NVIDIA DGX A100 systems interconnected across an NVIDIA Mellanox InfiniBand fabric and 1.5 petabytes of high-performance storage from DDN. BerzeLiUs will also feature the Atos Codex AI Suite, enabling researchers to speed up processing times on their complex data.

“This new supercomputer will supercharge AI research in Sweden,” said Jaap Zuiderveld, vice president for EMEA at NVIDIA. “It will position Sweden as a leader in academic research, and it will give Swedish businesses a competitive edge in telecommunications, design, drug development, manufacturing and more industries.””

For Edward Feser, Dean and Executive Vice President, Oregon State University, AI is of great importance for research projects: (47)

‘’We look forward to DGX H100 systems helping us in our collaborative research projects to address new challenges in climate science, sustainability and microelectronics. These systems form the critical foundation of the AI infrastructure we will deploy in the new Jen-Hsun and Lori Huang Collaborative Innovation Complex, which will enable Oregon State University to drive innovation, foster entrepreneurship, and build partnerships with industry and other institutions of higher learning for the benefit of the state, the country, and the world. ‘’

Benefits of AI in Higher Education

AI has many benefits in higher education, including increased efficiency, enhanced student engagement, and better learning outcomes. One of the key benefits of AI is its ability to automate routine tasks, such as grading and assessment, allowing educators to focus on more meaningful interactions with students. AI can also provide valuable insights into student performance and engagement, helping educators identify areas where students are struggling and provide targeted interventions and support. (48)

Another benefit of AI in higher education is its ability to enhance student engagement. With AI-powered learning platforms, students can receive personalized feedback, recommendations, and resources based on their unique needs and interests. This can lead to more effective learning outcomes and greater student engagement. AI can also help educators foster collaboration and communication among students, through the use of virtual learning environments and social learning platforms. (49)

In addition to the benefits mentioned above, which are universal across all levels of education, here are some ways AI can benefit the higher education sector specifically:

  • Intelligent course recommendations: AI algorithms can analyze students’ academic records and preferences to suggest courses and college paths best suited to their career aspirations.
  • Personalized Academic Advising: Virtual advisors powered by artificial intelligence can help students choose their majors, track their progress, and provide valuable advice on course registration and degree planning.
  • Early alerts and support: AI analytics systems can help identify students who may be struggling academically or considering dropping out at an early stage, to enable timely interventions and support, thereby promoting higher retention rates and student success.
  • Accelerate research and knowledge: AI gives researchers a boost. It can contribute to data analysis, text mining, and literature review, helping them synthesize knowledge and achieve research results more quickly.
  • Strategic Student Recruitment: Institutions can leverage AI-generated data to strategically target potential students, optimizing marketing efforts to attract the right candidates to their higher education offerings.
  • Effective resource management: With AI-generated data, institutions can make informed decisions on resource allocation and financial planning.
  • Inclusive learning environments: AI technologies can help promote inclusion. By offering closed captions, text-to-speech, and other assistive features, learning materials become more accessible to students with disabilities.

The ethical issues of AI in education

Positioning yourself against artificial intelligence in general or specifically, for example in education, is something that is certainly defendable on a philosophical level. As was the case with the appearance of the steam engine and assembly line work, the fear of seeing these machines replace us provokes reactions, including that of categorical rejection. However, these reactions have never led to a ban on these new technologies that increase productivity. They nevertheless helped to raise awareness and perhaps would have prepared the ground for certain movements, such as those aimed at defending workers’ rights.

Currently, there is a gap between the school world and the rest of society. Society is evolving and taking a digital shift at a pace that schools are struggling to keep up with. The appearance of mobile technologies with Internet access is an example that still provokes debate. The opinions expressed range from total bans to those allowing everything that is acceptable elsewhere in society. Thus, discussions on the integration of AI in education seem far-fetched to many. However, if AI takes up more and more space in our daily lives, can schools afford to ignore it? Of course, this does not mean that everything that exists outside of school must necessarily be found in school, but it will probably be necessary to evaluate each application of AI according to its potential.

On the other hand, how can we critically judge AI if we don’t fully understand it? There are many ideas circulating on this subject and some turn out to be biased. When we lack information, we refer to subjective experience, to emotion, to position ourselves. This is why AI often arouses fears. Ethics committees made up of the greatest researchers and developers have been set up to debate the biggest issues. However, as we mentioned previously, the impacts of AI in education are numerous and each use of AI potentially has an ethical dimension that deserves to be examined. The conclusion following this examination could be that of rejection. On the other hand, avoiding considering its applications exposes us to several problems, as is the case with other technologies.

On the question of ethics: (50)

“Despite the benefits of AI applications for education, they pose societal and ethical drawbacks. As the famous scientist, Stephen Hawking, pointed out that weighing these risks is vital for the future of humanity. Therefore, it is critical to take action toward addressing them. The biggest risks of integrating these algorithms in K-12 contexts are: (a) perpetuating existing systemic bias and discrimination, (b) perpetuating unfairness for students from mostly disadvantaged and marginalized groups, and (c) amplifying racism, sexism, xenophobia, and other forms of injustice and inequity. These algorithms do not occur in a vacuum; rather, they shape and are shaped by ever-evolving cultural, social, institutional and political forces and structures. As academics, scientists, and citizens, we have a responsibility to educate teachers and students to recognize the ethical challenges and implications of algorithm use. To create a future generation where an inclusive and diverse citizenry can participate in the development of the future of AI, we need to develop opportunities for K-12 students and teachers to learn about AI via AI- and ethics-based curricula and professional development.”

For example, there would be the risk of being manipulated by the AI or by those who control it. Indeed, AI is based on a large amount of data in order to identify, generalize and predict behavior. Some scientists go so far as to say that the machine could soon know the human being better than he himself. On the other hand, don’t the results proposed by AI risk being interpreted as an absolute truth? Too much confidence and dependence on the use of these technologies could lead to a certain intellectual laziness and allow certain ill-intentioned powers to use them to achieve their political objectives. (51) 

Letting students appropriate these technologies outside of the school setting, without supervision other than that of parents, is highly questionable. There is certainly a tendency to always want to entrust more mandates to school in order to offer better chances to everyone in life and school cannot constantly replace parental responsibilities. On the other hand, it is necessary to ensure that this supervision is done with all the information attached to it. The question of the role of the education system in the appropriation of technologies using artificial intelligence is entirely relevant, particularly in its ethical dimensions. It is imperative to train our teachers so that they can make informed didactic and pedagogical choices and lead discussions on ethical issues with young people. The goal is to prepare students to control artificial intelligence, and not to be dependent on it. (52)

Artificial Intelligence in 21st Century Skills Development

Artificial Intelligence Digitization Old New Conflict Fear Ignorance

At the rapid pace at which society is evolving, it is difficult to predict the scale of the challenges that await our young people in the coming decades. However, it seems obvious that the development of skills in solving complex problems, where computational thinking  plays an important role, is essential in education in the 21st century. Computational thinking (53) is not the ability to “think like a computer” or to use the computer to think. According to Cuny, Snyder, and Wing (2010), (54) computational thinking is “the reflective process involved in formulating problems and their solutions in such a way that their resolution can be carried out by an information processing agent.” Today, these information processing agents are increasingly sophisticated and enhanced by AI, which makes new problem-solving tools available.

In fact, the relationship between AI in education and computational thinking is symbiotic. On the one hand, the arrival of tools equipped with AI reinforces the need to develop computational thinking because it is the preferred way (perhaps even the only one) of using the results given by several intelligent agents and combine them to solve problems. On the other hand, the study of intelligent information processing agents is an excellent way to develop computational thinking. (55)

Learning to program, although not the only way to develop computational thinking, is an interesting vehicle to achieve this. Moreover, in recent years, teaching programming has become a concern in many countries. However, this is an idea that dates back to the 1960s, but which has clearly had difficulty gaining ground for all sorts of reasons, including the costs associated with purchasing computers. Currently, programming teaching is generally limited to what is sequential, procedural or event-driven, often using very visual tools like Scratch (56) for example. However, this should only be the starting point for a solid implementation in the training program, whether as a new subject or as part of mathematics courses. This absolutely does not remove the need to solve problems with a pencil and lined sheets of paper, on the contrary. The traditional way of solving problems will always remain an essential tool, if only to visualize what is sometimes very abstract. Moreover, the two approaches should complement each other.

Generative artificial intelligence: a tool for higher education

1. What is generative artificial intelligence?

Since November 2022, the open access launch of ChatGPT, a conversational agent using artificial intelligence and developed by the company OpenAI, has highlighted both the power of generative artificial intelligence tools, their availability to the general public, and the ethical issues they raise. Numerous articles report the impressive capacity of this type of tool to process different types of language and to generate, among other things, texts emulating human writing skills; At the same time, these articles highlight the challenges that the arrival of these tools represents for our societies and, particularly, in the education sector. Within higher education institutions, recent and rapid developments in this area highlight the need for critical reflection. Beyond the risk of new forms of plagiarism and fraud, accessibility to generative artificial intelligence tools raises questions about fundamental dimensions in education, such as the evaluation of learning and the very nature of teaching. (57)

Introducing generative AI, Zhihan Lv writes: (58)

“Generative artificial intelligence (AI) is a form of AI that can autonomously generate new content, such as text, images, audio, and video. Generative AI provides innovative approaches for content production in the metaverse, filling gaps in the development of the metaverse. Products such as ChatGPT have the potential to enhance the search experience, reshape information generation and presentation methods, and become new entry points for online traffic. This is expected to significantly impact traditional search engine products, accelerating industry innovation and upgrading. This paper presents an overview of the technologies and prospective applications of generative AI in the breakthrough of metaverse technology and offers insights for increasing the effectiveness of generative AI in creating creative content.”

Generative AI refers to a set of technologies that use information existing in the form of text, code, image, audio or video to generate new content in one of these forms, without human action. ChatGPT (OpenAI), Bard (Google) and LLaMA (Meta) are among the generative AIs generating the most ink in recent months. (59)

The arrival, popularization and rapid releases of new generative AI systems has generated as many positive as negative responses in all circles. By perceiving ChatGPT, Bard and other current and future advances in generative artificial intelligence as tools, there are multiple possibilities for education. (60)

History has clearly shown that the world of education adapts to new technologies: from the calculator to the computer, from Google to Wikipedia, the automation of certain tasks has not diminished the skills of students. Instead, it focused these on increasingly complex skills. Generative AI is the most recent of these technologies. (61)

Imagine a world where every student benefits from personalized teaching, where teachers are freed from administrative tasks to concentrate on what they do best: teaching. This world is not a distant utopia, but a reality in the making thanks to artificial intelligence (AI). From the personalization of learning to the automation of tasks, AI is redefining the contours of education as we know it. (62)

2. For teachers

If we give ourselves the opportunity to experiment, ChatGPT can be a tool for all teaching staff. While it doesn’t replace the physical presence and personality that a human brings to a classroom, ChatGPT is good at accomplishing repetitive tasks: automatically correcting exercises, providing automatic feedback on exam questions frequently missed by students. students, prepare work instructions. By asking ChatGPT to create questionnaires, write scenarios or even by asking it to improve our current educational materials according to specific criteria, generative AI becomes a practical teaching assistant to develop personalized educational tools and adaptive or improve existing ones. (63) Microsoft’s Copilot AI assistant, powered by OpenAI’s GPT-4, could also, when made available to the general public, become an excellent tool to free or relieve teachers of certain tasks: preparation of PowerPoint presentations, analysis of Excel data, writing draft emails on Outlook. (64)

On the relevance of ChatGPT, AIContentfly writes: (65)

“The potential of ChatGPT to automate repetitive tasks is significant. One of the most obvious ways ChatGPT can automate repetitive tasks is through its ability to understand and respond to natural language. This makes it well-suited for tasks such as customer service, where it can be used to quickly and accurately answer common questions without the need for human intervention.

Another way ChatGPT can automate repetitive tasks is through its ability to generate text. For example, it can be used to automatically write reports, summaries, and other written materials, taking over the task of writing, editing and proofreading.

ChatGPT can also be used to automate language-based tasks such as language translation, it can be trained on different languages and cultures, making it a powerful tool for companies that operate in multiple countries or deal with customers who speak different languages.”

The arrival of ChatGPT is an opportunity to experiment or improve one’s teaching practices to lead the student to demonstrate their acquisition of skills at levels higher than knowledge and understanding skills well mastered by the AI generative. So, analysis, evaluation and creation are skills that should be assessed, as should the student’s mental process leading to the final work. A learning logbook could, for example, be used, allowing the student to detail the stages of the work carried out and justifying the use of generative AI, if necessary. The work carried out must also represent authentic evaluation situations that allow students to fully engage in their learning. These situations place the student in a position of reflection that is relevant to them, in connection with their daily life or their career aspirations. Plagiarism and the use of generative AI to complete the entire work is less important, given the personal involvement that this type of work requires from the student. (66)

The flipped classroom is an example of an educational approach allowing students to use AI in their learning as a complement that enhances the readings, capsules and educational materials offered by the teacher. Independently, students can question generative AI, which deepens their learning or can validate the understanding of a concept. Classroom courses allow students to create works (texts, presentations, multimedia projects) that involve AI or not, depending on the skills that the teacher wishes to assess.

3. For students

Learning how ChatGPT works and learning its uses in the classroom are beneficial to the student community. The use of this technology has quickly arrived in the teaching landscape and while the majority of students have already heard of or used ChatGPT, all are certainly not equipped to use it in an informed manner. Education about its uses, its limits and its challenges in the context of university courses allows students to benefit from the tool, while being informed of its possible flaws. (67)

AI can be used in personalized learning. Depending on the student’s needs, ChatGPT can act as a 24/7 learning assistant. For example, it can be used to answer questions, provide additional exercises on a specific topic, and present feedback on the answers given by the student. The tutoring sessions offered by ChatGPT are virtually unrivalled in its versatility and availability. Additionally, generative AI is a tool to consider for supporting inclusive learning of diverse student populations, for example by supporting different types of learners with audio, video, or textual material. International students needing to familiarize themselves with a new language of instruction could also benefit from ChatGPT, as it is particularly good at providing translations and checking language. It can suggest improvements to the structure of a text and enrich its content, which is beneficial for improving students’ writing skills. (68)

The use of ChatGPT and other generative AI is an opportunity for students to become more efficient in the knowledge and understanding of concepts and then reinvest this work in the application of their knowledge in an approach that requires creativity, analysis and critical mind.

4. For universities and research

Task automation is a use of generative AI to improve library and research activities. ChatGPT can provide a list of articles on a specific topic or create article summaries. It can also assist researchers in writing drafts of various writings (grant applications, articles). When supported by ChatGPT, these tasks free up librarians and researchers’ time for other aspects of their work requiring the critical thinking, judgment and creativity unique to humans. (69)

On the issue of the librarian use of ChatGPT, Tanaji Shivaji Mali and Rahul Kalyanrao Deshmukh argue: (70)

“ChatGPT can be a useful tool in library services particularly in areas related to natural language processing, text analysis, and use rengagement. Its ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant responses to user queries can enhance the effectiveness of library Chatbot’s and virtual assistants, which are becoming increasingly important in providing online services to library patrons. In addition, ChatGPT can be used to analyze large volumes of text data generated by user interactions with library services. This can help identify patterns in user behavior, preferences, and needs, which can inform the development of more personalized and effective library services. Overall, ChatGPT has the potential to transform the way library services are delivered and evaluated, and can play an important role in improving user satisfaction and engagement. However, it is important to note that the use of ChatGPT should be complemented with other research methods to ensure a comprehensive and accurate understanding of user needs and preferences.” 

In order to better meet their needs, universities and those directly or indirectly concerned with educational innovation must participate in the development of generative AI technology. The use of these in the university context can lead to the adoption of an additional tool contributing to educational success, the inclusion of students and the effectiveness of the activities of the entire community. Generative AI and more particularly ChatGPT have yet to prove themselves in multiple facets, but can definitely contribute to innovation in higher education.

AI in academic research

AI has brought significant changes to academia, revolutionizing the way research is conducted, knowledge is generated and teaching is delivered. Integrating AI technologies into academia has the potential to streamline processes, improve research outcomes, and foster innovation. (71) 

Data analysis is one of the primary ways AI is changing academia. Researchers can leverage AI algorithms to quickly and efficiently analyze large amounts of data. This allows them to identify patterns, correlations and trends that are not always easy to discern with traditional methods. (72)

Additionally, AI is transforming the search process itself. It can help researchers analyze literature and synthesize knowledge by automatically analyzing and extracting relevant information from a wide range of scientific articles. This not only saves time, but also helps researchers stay up to date with the latest advances in their field. (73)

Education is another area where AI is having a significant impact on academia. AI-powered technologies are used to develop intelligent tutoring systems, adaptive learning platforms, and personalized educational experiences. These technologies can analyze students’ learning patterns and provide them with tailored feedback, support and resources. (74)

Additionally, AI has the potential to augment human capabilities in academia. It can automate repetitive tasks, freeing up researchers’ time to focus on higher-level cognitive activities. These include automating data collection, analysis, and even manuscript writing. By streamlining these processes, researchers can spend more time thinking critically, formulating hypotheses, and exploring new avenues of research. (75)

On the place of AI in academic research and higher education, Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Victoria I. Marín, Melissa Bond and Franziska Gouverneur argue: (76)

“According to various international reports, Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIEd) is one of the currently emerging fields in educational technology. Whilst it has been around for about 30 years, it is still unclear for educators how to make pedagogical advantage of it on a broader scale, and how it can actually impact meaningfully on teaching and learning in higher education. This paper seeks to provide an overview of research on AI applications in higher education through a systematic review. Out of 2656 initially identified publications for the period between 2007 and 2018, 146 articles were included for final synthesis, according to explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria. The descriptive results show that most of the disciplines involved in AIEd papers come from Computer Science and STEM, and that quantitative methods were the most frequently used in empirical studies. The synthesis of results presents four areas of AIEd applications in academic support services, and institutional and administrative services: 1. profiling and prediction, 2. assessment and evaluation, 3. adaptive systems and personalisation, and 4. intelligent tutoring systems. The conclusions reflect on the almost lack of critical reflection of challenges and risks of AIEd, the weak connection to theoretical pedagogical perspectives, and the need for further exploration of ethical and educational approaches in the application of AIEd in higher education.’’

Application of AI to academic research

Artificial intelligence has found many applications in academic research in various disciplines. Here are some examples of the use of AI in academic research:

Data analysis and pattern recognition: AI algorithms can analyze large data sets and identify patterns, correlations and trends that would not be easily identifiable by humans alone. This is particularly useful in fields such as genomics, climate science and social sciences.

Natural language processing (NLP): NLP techniques allow computers to understand and generate human language. Researchers use NLP to analyze large volumes of text data, extract insights, summarize documents, and detect sentiment. It finds applications in fields such as literature, linguistics and social sciences. (77)

Computer vision: AI-based computer vision systems can process and interpret visual data, such as images and videos. Researchers use computer vision to analyze medical images, satellite images and surveillance footage, among other things. It finds applications in fields such as biology, astronomy and environmental sciences.

Drug discovery and development: AI is used to accelerate the drug discovery process by predicting the properties and interactions of potential drug compounds. Machine learning models can analyze large amounts of chemical and biological data to identify potential drug targets and design new molecules.

Robotics and Automation: AI-powered robots and automated systems are increasingly used in academic research to perform tasks such as laboratory experiments, data collection, and sample processing. These robots can work 24/7, reducing human errors and increasing the efficiency of research workflows.

Recommendation systems: AI algorithms can provide personalized recommendations based on user preferences and behaviors. In academia, these systems can suggest relevant research articles, conferences, or collaborations based on a researcher’s interests and previous work.

Simulation and modeling: AI techniques, such as machine learning and neural networks, can be used to create complex models and simulations. Researchers can use these models to study and predict phenomena in fields such as physics, economics and social sciences.

Knowledge discovery and synthesis: AI can help researchers discover and synthesize information from vast quantities of research papers, patents, and other academic sources. This can help identify research gaps, find relevant literature, and generate new ideas. (78)

Artificial Intelligence, for better and for worse

robot cyborg artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence plays an increasingly important role in the reality of many companies, mainly to meet the need for cybersecurity. For the benefit of organizations, AI makes it possible to better detect threats and protect IT infrastructures and their content. Conversely, cybercriminals are now taking advantage of an additional tool to launch more sophisticated and dangerous attacks. Because although technology advances and simplifies everyday tasks, cyberattacks are becoming more and more widespread and effective. (79)

The advantages of artificial intelligence

Using AI, computer systems can learn, reason, and act using the vast data sets their sensors have collected. In this sense, according to Forbes, 76% of companies surveyed will now organize their IT budgets to prioritize AI and machine learning. Here are some significant benefits that this new technology brings. (80)

1. Reduction of errors

Artificial intelligence helps us reduce human error and the chances of achieving accuracy with a higher degree of precision. It is applied in various fields such as space exploration. Intelligent robots are fed information and sent to explore space. Being machines with metal bodies, they are more durable and have a greater capacity to withstand space and hostile atmosphere.

They are created and acclimated in such a way that they cannot be altered, disfigured or broken down in a hostile environment.

2. Difficult exploration

Artificial intelligence and robotic science can be used in mining and other fuel exploration processes. Additionally, these complex machines can be used to explore the ocean floor and thus overcome human limitations.

By programming robots, they can perform more laborious and difficult work with greater responsibility. Plus, they don’t wear out easily.

3. Daily application

Computerized methods of automated reasoning, learning, and perception have become a common phenomenon in our daily lives. We have our lady Siri or Cortana to help us.

We also take the road for long journeys and trips using GPS. The smartphone is an appropriate and everyday example of the use of artificial intelligence.

At work and in our private lives, we find that they can predict what we will type and correct spelling mistakes.

When we take a photo, the artificial intelligence algorithm identifies and detects the person’s face and the brand when we post our photographs on social media sites.

Artificial intelligence is widely used by financial institutions and banking institutions to organize and manage data. Fraud detection also uses artificial intelligence.

4. Digital assistants

The most advanced organizations use “avatars”, which are replicas or digital assistants, capable of interacting with users, which saves human resources.

For artificial thinkers, emotions stand in the way of rational thought and are not a distraction in any way. The complete absence of the emotional side forces robots to think logically and make the right decisions regarding the program.

Emotions are associated with moods that can impair judgment and affect human effectiveness. This is completely excluded for machine intelligence.

5. Repetitive work

Repetitive tasks that are monotonous in nature can be done with the help of artificial intelligence. Machines think faster than humans and can be multi-tasked. Machine intelligence can be used to perform dangerous tasks. Their parameters, unlike humans, can be adjusted. Their speed and time are just parameters based on calculations.

6. Medical applications

Also, in the medical field we find a wide application of AI. Doctors assess patients and their health risks using artificial machine intelligence. It educates them about the side effects of various medications.

Healthcare professionals are often trained in artificial surgery simulators. It finds huge application in the detection and monitoring of neurological disorders as it can simulate brain functions.

Robotics is often used to help mental health patients overcome depression and stay active.

7. No breaks

Machines, unlike humans, do not require frequent breaks and refreshes. They are programmed for long hours and can run continuously without getting bored, distracted or even tired.

The disadvantages of artificial intelligence

Despite the positive potential of this digital tool, in the hands of malicious actors, artificial intelligence also raises its share of concerns and has disadvantages to take into account.

Artificial Intelligence Display Dummy Board Face Technology Think Human

Craig Gibson, David Sancho, Robert McArdle, and Vincenzo Ciancaglini, examine in a survey the dangers of AI in the hands of cybercriminals, they argue: (81)

“Despite the many advantages of AI and ML technologies in thwarting cybercrime, including their capability to analyze vast amounts of data, files, and events to identify and block threats, these capabilities could also be abused by cybercriminals to improve existing threats and attacks. In our research paper “Malicious Uses and Abuses of Artificial Intelligence,” a joint project among Trend Micro, the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), and Europol, we delve into the many ways that cybercriminals abuse ML and AI presently and how they could exploit these technologies for ill gain in the future.”

And go on to say:

“Aside from generating false information, cybercriminals can use AI and ML to extract structured data from unstructured documents. For example, they could obtain personally identifiable information (PII) from data dumps or compromised networks. Malicious actors are currently developing something similar to named entity recognition (NER), an application that can identify credit cards, phone numbers, and addresses in arbitrary text. This would improve their ability to find key-value data that is not in more standardized formats, such as data that can be found in password dumps. Such malware can even be programmed to look for specific valuable information. Indeed, we believe that with improved NER techniques for malware creation in the future, malicious actors would be able to perform more targeted and sophisticated data scraping.”

1. High cost

Creating artificial intelligence requires enormous costs because they are very complex machines. Their repair and maintenance also involve significant costs.

They have software that requires frequent upgrading to meet the needs of the changing environment and the need for machines to be smarter every day.

In the event of a serious breakdown, the procedure for recovering lost codes and reinstalling the system can take a lot of time and money.

2. No initiative

Machines do not have emotions and moral values. They execute what is programmed and cannot judge what is right or wrong. Even cannot make decisions if they encounter a situation unknown to them. They do not work properly or break down in such situations.

3. No improvement with experience

Unlike humans, artificial intelligence cannot be improved with experience. Over time, this can lead to wear and tear. It stores a lot of data, but the way it can be accessed and used is very different from human intelligence.

Machines cannot change their responses to changing environments. We are constantly bombarded by the question of whether it is truly exciting to replace humans with machines.

In the world of artificial intelligence, there is nothing like working with all your heart or with passion. Care or concern is not present in the machine intelligence dictionary. There is no sense of belonging, camaraderie or human contact. They fail to distinguish between a hardworking individual and an inefficient individual.

4. No creativity

Do you want creativity or imagination?

These are not the strength of artificial intelligence. Although they can help you design and create, they are no match for the thinking power that the human brain possesses or even the originality of a creative mind.

Human beings are extremely sensitive and emotional intellectuals. They see, hear, think and feel. Their thoughts are guided by feelings which are completely lacking in machines. The intuitive abilities inherent in the human brain cannot be replicated.

5. Unemployment

Replacing humans with machines can lead to significant unemployment.

Unemployment is a socially undesirable phenomenon. People who have nothing to do can lead to the destructive use of their creative minds.

Humans may unnecessarily become heavily dependent on machines if the use of artificial intelligence becomes endemic. They will lose their creative power and will become lazy.

Artificial intelligence in the wrong hands is a serious threat to humanity in general. This can lead to mass destruction. Additionally, there is a constant fear that machines will take over or replace humans.

Identifying and studying artificial intelligence risk is a very important task. This can help resolve current issues. Programming errors or cyberattacks require further investigation. Tech companies and the tech industry as a whole need to pay more attention to software quality. Everything that has been created in this world and in our individual societies is the ongoing result of intelligence. (82)

Artificial intelligence augments and enhances human intelligence. So, as long as we can keep technology beneficial, we can move our society forward.


The future is indeed here. There is no doubt that artificial intelligence in education is gaining popularity among teachers and students. Educators are using AI in the form of EdTech tools to help them create lesson plans or calculate student grades. As for learners, AI can help them complete their projects, homework and even research work. While it cannot be denied that artificial intelligence in 2024 has become a part of our lives, there are still some advantages and disadvantages of AI that deserve a closer look and are still the subject of a debate. (83)

There are important pros and cons to using AI in education to consider. Benefits such as personalization of learning, increased teaching efficiency, access to relevant data and reduced costs can significantly improve the learning experience. However, there are also downsides such as reduced human interaction. There is also a risk of algorithmic bias, fewer jobs for teachers and the need for significant technical resources. (84)

It is therefore essential that educators and policymakers constantly evaluate the impacts of AI. This can maximize benefits while limiting risks. It is also important to view AI as a complement to human teaching rather than a complete replacement. By integrating AI into education wisely, educators can harness its potential to improve learning while ensuring a high-quality teaching experience for learners. (85)

While AI has the potential to revolutionize the way we think about education, there are still many challenges and concerns that need to be addressed. It is important that researchers and developers continue to explore the potential of AI in education and work to address the challenges and concerns that may arise as this type of technology improves and is implemented in the current education system.

In this regard, Margot Zanetti, Giulia Iseppi and Francesco Peluso Cassese argue in an article that: (86)

“New studies demonstrated that an AI can “deviate” and become potentially malicious, due to programmers’ biases, corrupted feeds or purposeful actions. Knowing the pervasive use of artificial intelligence systems, including in the educational environment, it seemed necessary to investigate when and how an AI in education could deviate. We started with an investigation of AI and the risks it poses, wondering if they could be applied also to educative AI. We then reviewed the increasing literature that deals with the use of technology in the classroom, and the criticism about it, referring to specific use cases. Finally, as a result, the authors formulate questions and suggestions for further research, to bridge conceptual gaps underlined by lack of research.’’ 

The penetration of AI and the rise of EdTech companies herald a promising future. Its potential for personalizing learning and improving writing is remarkable. But the potential dilution of human interaction and reliance on artificial intelligence are real concerns. Navigating this dynamic terrain requires a holistic approach: harnessing intelligent systems while mitigating their downsides. (87)

On the true nature of AI, Max Roser writes: (88)

‘’Artificial intelligence (AI) that surpasses our own intelligence sounds like the stuff from science-fiction books or films. What do experts in the field of AI research think about such scenarios? Do they dismiss these ideas as fantasy, or are they taking such prospects seriously?

A human-level AI would be a machine, or a network of machines, capable of carrying out the same range of tasks that we humans are capable of. It would be a machine that is “able to learn to do anything that a human can do”, as Norvig and Russell put it in their textbook on AI.”

It would be able to choose actions that allow the machine to achieve its goals and then carry out those actions. It would be able to do the work of a translator, a doctor, an illustrator, a teacher, a therapist, a driver, or the work of an investor.”

For example, students should focus on learning skills that machine learning cannot replace, such as critical thinking and creativity for research papers. These skills help people adapt and thrive in a world influenced by computer algorithms. Additionally, AI creators and instructors should work together to ensure the fairness and security of personal data.

Education must be transformative. It must welcome new ideas and changes. AI should be used to create exciting methods of teaching and learning while preserving the deeper essence of human engagement.

You can follow Professor Mohamed Chtatou on X/Twitter: @Ayurinu

End notes:

  1.  Russell, S. & Norvig, P. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, United States: Prentice Hall.
  2.  Karsenti, T. (2018). Intelligence artificielle en éducation : L’urgence de préparer les futurs enseignants aujourd’hui pour l’école de demain ? Formation et profession, 26(3), 112-119. Retrieved from 
  3.  Roser, Max. (2023, February 7). AI timelines: What do experts in artificial intelligence expect for the future? Retrieved from: 
  4.  Blumenstyk, G. (2018). Can artificial intelligence make teaching more personal? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from 
  5.  Wang H., Chang C., Li T. (2008). Assessing creative problem-solving with automated text grading. Computer and Education, 51(4), 1450-1466. Doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.01.006 
  6.  At the most basic level, a chatbot is a computer program that simulates and processes human conversation (either written or spoken), allowing humans to interact with digital devices as if they were communicating with a real person. (,communicating%20with%20a%20real%20person.) 
  7.  Holstein, K., Aleven, V., & Rummel, N. (2020). A conceptual framework for human-AI hybrid adaptivity in education. In: International conference on artificial intelligence in education (pp. 240-254). New York, NY, USA: Springer, Cham.
  8.  Chtatou, Mohamed. (2024, January 6). Independent Learning in The Digital Age – Analysis. Eurasia Review. Retrieved from: 
  9. Ibid
  10.  Seo, K., Tang, J., Roll, I. et al. (2021). The impact of artificial intelligence on learner-instructor interaction in online learning. Int J Educ Technol High Educ, 18(54). Retrieved from
  11.  Nabeel Gillani, Nabeel, Rebecca Eynon, Catherine Chiabaut & Kelsey Finkel. (2023).  Unpacking the ‘Black Box’ of AI in Education. Educational Technology & Society, 26(1), 99-111. Retrieved from 
  12.  Stone P & al. (2016). Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030. One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence: Report of the 2015-2016 Study Panel. Stanford University. Retrieved from 
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  14.  Online learning, also known as distance education or eLearning, refers to the delivery of educational content and instruction through the internet. It allows students to take courses and earn degrees remotely, without the need to be physically present on campus. Online learning can take many different forms, such as web-based courses, video conferencing, and self-paced learning programs. It is becoming an increasingly popular way for students to access education, as it offers flexibility and convenience. (
  15.  Acemoglu, Daron, & Simon Johnson. (2023, June 9). Big Tech Is Bad. Big A.I. Will Be Worse. New York Times. Retrieved from 
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  17. Ibid
  18.  ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot that uses natural language processing to create humanlike conversational dialogue. The language model can respond to questions and compose various written content, including articles, social media posts, essays, code and emails. (,%2C%20essays%2C%20code%20and%20emails.)
  19.  Cherner, T., Fegely, A., Hou, C., & Halpin, P. (2023). AI-powered presentation platforms for improving public speaking skills: Takeaways and suggestions for improvement. Journal of Interactive Learning Research34(2), 339-367.
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  25.  What Is a MOOC? A massive open online course (MOOC) is a model for delivering learning content online to any person who wants to take a course, with no limit on attendance. Cf. Kaplan, Andreas M. & Haenlein, Michael. (2016). Higher education and the digital revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, social media, and the Cookie Monster. Business Horizons59(4), 441-50.
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  45.  Here we refer to computer science as a science and not from the point of view of the use of software or information management.
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Dr. Mohamed Chtatou

Dr. Mohamed Chtatou is a Professor of education science at the university in Rabat. He is currently a political analyst with Moroccan, Gulf, French, Italian and British media on politics and culture in the Middle East, Islam and Islamism as well as terrorism. He is, also, a specialist on political Islam in the MENA region with interest in the roots of terrorism and religious extremism.

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