Media Literacy: Ideology Of Manipulation Or Manipulation Of Ideology – Essay


GENERAL ELECTIONS in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ruling classes and ruling ideas

Concept of ideology1, just for an example, forces readers to notice that all cultural texts have a certain bias, interest, and embedded values and represent the opinion or attitude of their producers and often the values of a dominant social group. Today, unlike the times that the Marxists have been addressing (XIX century), in the time of high technology and global capitalism, ideas that promote globalization, digital technology, and the market society without any limitations of action have become the prevailing ideas – in other words, concepts that follow the interests of ruling elite in the global economy.

How does this reflect in such small, but extremely divided societies as Bosnia and Herzegovina is? Sociologically, the examples are innumerable. In addition to the prevailing attitudes of those in power2, there are also the inability to express the attitudes of the “others”, whether they are anything other than Bosniaks (Muslims), Serbs (Orthodox) and / or Croats (Catholics), but also a certain group of multiculturalists, feminists, LGBT populations and a wide range of the subordinate groups.

That is eo ipso – ideologies are the ones that produce relationships of domination within the arena of gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality … The feminists, again – examples work, criticize sexist ideologies that they enhance the dominance of men over women in the way of propagating the male superiority.

Racist ideologies and their advocates have been criticized for speaking and working for the goal of subverting one race to another. In a broader sense, as a logical sequence of this, ideologies produce social domination by enacting the right of prevailing groups in society to be above the “subordinate” groups, and by doing that helps to repeating of the existing inequalities and establishing of the hierarchical control within that empowered power and decision-making.

Lately, and especially in Western countries3, an understanding of Marxism is growing precisely within the concept of ideology and the relationship between media and cultural studies4.

For classical Marxism, ruling classes employ intellectuals and cultural producers who produce ideas that glorify the dominant institutions and way of life, and propagate their dominant ideas within cultural forms such as literature, press, or, today, through film and television, as well as over the Internet.

Examples of the domestic people who are older than anybody else in the World:

  • Bosniaks (Muslims):
  • Serbs (Orthodox):
  • Croats (Catholics):

Further on, the Italian Marxist thinker, Antonio Gramsci5, developed these ideas, pointing to the fact that different social groups reach “hegemony” or dominance during different times using the fact of causing the consent of subjugating the majority, according to the given socio-political groups. Interestingly, Gramsci states that, while the predominant groups mostly shape through the state (as during the revolution in America or the unification of Italy during the XIX century), the “civil society” institutions also play a role in establishing the hegemony. Civil society, among other things, in this discourse includes institutions of church, education, media and forms of pop culture. It mediates between the private sphere of personal economic interests and the family and public authority of the state itself, serving as a place which Jurgen Habermas described as a “public sphere”. According to Gramsci, societies maintain their stability through a combination of “domination”, or force and “hegemony,” defined as the consent of “intellectual and moral leadership.

In this idea, the social array and order are established and produced with certain institutions6 and groups that represent the violent forces of society while other institutions impose the consent of the dominant array and order through the establishment of hegemony, or ideological domination, of a characteristic social array and order7. In addition to this, societies establish hegemony of men and certain races through the institutionalization of male dominance or the rules of a specific race or ethnicity over non-institutional groups.

Globalism and Social Movements

Globalization, as a phenomenon, within all its aspects, has been the most controversial in the past two decades and has attracted a lot of analyzes, books, and debates just as postmodernism was a form of a novel and controversial issue of the eighties of the last century, which has continued today, in the first decades of the XXI century. Many theorists emphasize that the world is organized by the acceleration of globalization, which strengthens the dominance of the world capitalist society. We can argue about this, both from the scientific and from the everyday, human aspects, and especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where people are publicly accused of disenfranchisement within the system of disrupted values ​​over the past two and half decades just because:

  1. They are not members of one or those political options – not any political party;
  2. They are not resourceful in legal, hypocritical theft in the style of “whoever is guilty to him/her because he/she does not know”;
  3. They do not want to accept as idols people from black chronicles of the media.

So, we come to the point of the General elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From the above listing of 3 (three) you can find almost 70 % of the candidates within the elections.

Modern capitalism, in my opinion, although I myself was the part of those who wrote an article back in 1986 – in that non-people, single-party system – “Gulliver’s Prediction, the Lilliputian Realization”8 – in the simulation of assumed self-imposed taxes and never realized for orientation towards helping those who are needed is nothing more than a realistic awareness of the power of authorities, capital, and manipulation that is implemented at the expense of the weak and insufficiently educated world. Those who defend global capitalism – globalization marks the triumph of capitalism and its market economy (who mentioned the 2008 crisis? – I recommend Michael Moore’s movie “Capitalism, Love Story”). When we look at the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, perhaps the best example of a BOSNALIJEK affair that depicts all the unscrupulousness of the new tycoons in the country, of which the portal well-spoken within the analysis in their documentary on YouTube on 26.3.2014.

Discourses of globalization were initially polarized with pros-cons of pleadings and assaults. For critics, the term globalization covers the concept of global capitalism and imperialism and is accused of being a different form of cover for global capitalism and markets on a much larger area of the world and the sphere of life. In other words, capital does not know the boundaries and wants to multiply by expanding, at the expense of the logic of respecting the societies and the concepts of the societies they focus on. For those who defend it, globalization is a continuation of modernization, and it is the power of progress, increase of wealth, freedom, democracy, and happiness9, and the champions of globalization represent it as the benefit of everyone and that it generates fresh economic opportunities, political democratization, cultural diversity and opening up towards a thrilling new world.

I do not think it would be bad to contact the underdeveloped countries to confirm or deny the “libelist” theory that globalization is perceived as damaging that leads to increased domination of developed countries over the poor, underdeveloped countries where hegemony increases „of those who have” over “those who do not.” At the same time, globalization critics point out that globalization undermines democracy, cultural homogenization and increased destruction of the natural environment and species on the planet Earth.

Maybe the last elections ever in the country of lost hopes?

So, what does it all have to do with General elections in such a small country as it is Bosnia and Herzegovina, shape of the hearth and approx. with 3,5 million population?

Would not have anything if there is developed media literacy.

Would not have anything if there is a critical consciousness developed in regards understanding of the social and political environment.

Would not have anything if there is a country of social justice developed where the rule of law exists and not law of rule.

Would not have anything if the whole world is not embraced with populism and exclusivity of “I”, “Me” and “Us”.

Would not have anything if the knowledge exists as “conditio sine qua non” for human existing.

Would not have anything if ignorance, corruption and apt is not on pedestal of working capabilities.

Although, it has to do everything with all above plus with the try to be under the control (or even some parts to become a part of those) surrounding countries (Croatia and Serbia) who are like predators, waiting for the small political “cough” within it, to come and offer there “good will” help which always (in the past) was everything else but not “good will” hand of help.

So, how to overcome it?

With the easy three steps:

  1. Establishing of independent higher education commission (for all level of political establishments in BiH – entity and cantonal) under the control of High representative (to use Bonn powers) that will shape up a curriculum in primary and secondary schools which will be of common interest and not of the interest of so call “parties and people” (but in reality – “groups of interests”) but exclusively of the interest of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the whole.
  2. Introducing media literacy into the primary and secondary schools as separate module thought by professionals.
  3. Complete reform of judicial system where the rule of law is on power and not law of rule.

Again, my proposal is for those who will do as mentioned, after being elected. With deadlines and responsibilities for it. People should try to recognize them prior to the elections…At least to try.

Again, the question raises: “What is older? Chicken or the egg?” How they would recognize it without being media literate?

Yes, that is a question of million $ US dollars?

Although, I still think that there is a critical mass to start doing that and it is those 46 % of population eligible to vote and not going to the voting process. They are the solution, because those on power now will continue to run BiH with only 20% of elected votes. So, those 46 % should come and vote.

Otherwise, we will make the next step on our walk towards the “bright” future. The future that will lead us with that next step (if vote and elect differently) over the cliff into to abyss. Although, we might be in it, but we do not know that yet.

So, to be able to recognize the abyss we need those three steps to be able to build a bridge of hope over it. Without any further delay.

1. A system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
2. Whether the color of the flag is red, blue and/or green.
3. Especially after world economic crises that started after 2008.
4. „Media and cultural studies“ – Key Works, by Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas M. Kellner February 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
5. Antonio Gramsci, “History of the subaltern classes” and “The concept of ‘ideology.’” In Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (eds. and trans.), Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, pp. 52–3, 57–8, and 375–7. New York: International Publishers, 1971.
6. Police, armies, civic groups for self-defense, etc…
7. Market capitalism fascism, communism, etc..
8. Sabahudin Hadžialić – Article from „Viteški vjesnik“ (1986, biweekly, Vitez, BiH, SFRJ) – republished by DIOGEN pro culture magazine, Annual, October 2010.g. No.1..: …about self-imposed tax of 5 % from net income on BiH level.
9. I will never forget „happiness „from 1990 when Muhamed Čengić, vice-president of the first Government of democratic SR BiH (still within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) said that Bosnia and Herzegovina will be the next Switzerland (equal in richness) and from next Monday we will have the state where law ruled. It is so obvious how far away we are today from both, exactly because of the brutality of the application of capitalism in the country of non-built assumptions of adequate transition, within its all shape of appearances. Today BiH is at the end of the successful line of duty:

Prof. Dr. Sabahudin Hadzialic

Prof. Dr. Sabahudin Hadzialic was born in 1960, in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 1964 he lives in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is a professor (two doctoral degrees), scientist, writer & poet (distinguished artist by state), journalist, and editor. He wrote 26 books (textbooks for the Universities in BiH and abroad, books of poetry, prose, essays as well as) and his art and scientific work is translated in 25 world languages. He published books in BiH, Serbia, France, Switzerland, USA and Italy. He wrote more than 100 scientific papers. He is certified peer-reviewer (his citations appear in books and papers of scientists from all continents) for several European scientific journals. He participates within EU project funds and he is a member of scientific boards of Journals in Poland, India and the USA. He is a member of the Board of directors of IFSPD ( Also, he is a regular columnists & essayist and member of the Editorial board, since 2014, of Eurasia Review, think tank and journal of news & analysis from the USA. Since 2009 he is co-owner and Editor in chief of DIOGEN pro culture - magazine for culture, art, education and science from the USA. He is a member of major associations of writers in BiH, Serbia and Montenegro as well as Foundations (scientific and non-governmental) Associations worldwide. As professor he was/is teaching at the Universities in BiH, Italy, Lithuania, Poland and India. Detailed info:

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