Theoreticians (1) from different scientific disciplines (politology, sociology, communicology) recently conducted an analytical observation of the different processes exactly within the aspects of political manipulation which are a joint denominator of the fragmented cultural, social and political area of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2). However, as stated (Lea Tajić, 2013) media literacy still belongs, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to the pioneer category of the research efforts.
Every day there is a bigger risk that the citizens will, within the time of effusive offer of media contents, be lost in the “information blizzard”. Paradoxically this is, but true, that the possibilities of the manipulation and allurement has increased parallel with number of media and strengthening of their mutual competitions. Being thought with a few bad (mainly manipulation within the preparation of war interventions) examples, the public reacts in decreasing the general trust into the media. Those are, for the science, known reasons with which has been explained the support of the citizens, and which they gave for the establishment either regulations or self-regulations which has, for the goal, the increase of the media’s responsibility and journalists – for the public word.
Within the field of public politics, the described mood of the citizens did not stay without echo. Many European states have destined to provide their own contribution for the strengthening of the Bodies that will create codeces/codexes of the professional ethics (Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, Cyprus…). They have initiated creation of the Press Council (3) (or Media Council) ensuring for them the premises and funding’s for the beginning of the work.
After that, they leave to those bodies to take care about the responsibility for public word of the media and journalists without interfering into their work. In other examples, and especially when in question are codeces/codexes and editorial guidelines of RTV companies like Public broadcasting service – the representative of the state has their word within the bodies which adopts and bring their own documents. Mainly, indirect presence of the representative of the state ensures through the way of choosing/electing of the members of the independent regulation agencies which monitor the work of electronic media (4). Finally, aside of strengthening of the self-regulations, the state, in case of the need (5) intervene also by its legislative activity. At the same time, the state creates legal norms through which “covers” appearances which has been overlooked by codeces/codexes of professional ethics, or which one has not been overlooked, or which one is not approbates.
Media literacy (6), if it is, in an appropriate way entered into the society, through suitable and adequate educational process, can be a help in the defining of the possibility of the development of society of immediate democratic consciousness.
However, there is one more thing which we cannot avoid at all, when we are talking about the truth within one society, regardless about which ideological array it is about. Namely, Martin Luther (7) sealed off the end of visual culture of the metaphysical era, in which the people have not been reminded on divine order through the listening of Latin articles but through the watching of the painted biblical messages with the saying: “Christ’s kingdom is the kingdom of listening, and not the kingdom of watching.” But, the speculator of today, who, under the impression of slashing universalism of its culture, proclaimed and founded revisualization of the communication culture as the promise of the future, was the Hungarian artist Bela Balasz (8).
He underlined the visual as the new truth, and it is visible that we have anesthesia of the social order as domination of visual (9) in comparison with what is in written and/or spoken word. Today, 90 % of information that goes towards our brain is visual (10) and we are getting to the social media (11) that encircles visualization with written and spoken word within virtual reality. Sometimes we really do need to ask ourselves the question: Is our real world really the real world or is it within a virtual online world?
Exactly that is why I am addressing media literacy research presented within Eurasia Review since 14.2.2018, 27.03.2018 and 20.05.2018, including this essay as well, and the ones to come in the nearest future on the pages of Eurasia Review, founded on the mentioned aspect of visualization, identification and shaping up of the followers instead of critical questioners of the society.
This study, within the scientific sense, continues and widens possible debate about the role and importance of media literacy within the society, as a basic presumption exactly of the development of the society, and not the creation of the obedient followers who will carry out simple wishes of the principals. Simply, to avoid arbiters/intermediators with the possibility of executing conclusions, on time and based on arguments, for the benefit of the society as the whole (12) within critical observations, thinking and also, by all means, through the adequate actions.
1. Lea Tajić “Media Literacy in Bosnia and Herzegovina”, 2013, Publisher INTERNEWS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA („MEDIJSKA PISMENOST U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI“, 2013.g. , Izdavač INTERNEWS U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI), Street Hamdije Kreševljakovića 50, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Hercegovina, www.internews.ba
2. Info: http://www.media.ba/bs/publication/medijska-pismenost-i-civilno-drustvo
3.Press Council in Bosnia and Herzegovina: http://english.vzs.ba/: “The Self-regulatory Body for Print and Online Media – MEDIATES between unsatisfied media readers, and print and online media; SUPERVISES the application of the BH Press Code; IMPROVES professional standards in print and online media of Bosnia-Herzegovina; PROTECTS THE PUBLIC from unprofessional and manipulative journalistic reporting; PROTECTS THE MEDIA from political, economical or any other pressures that jeopardize freedom of informing and freedom of media;
Vision - To be recognized by the BH public as an expression of good will of the media industry to apply self-regulatory system in the print and online media, adhering to the Press Code in everyday work of the print and online media journalists - To be recognized by the public as an expression of readiness of the print and online media industry to fully protect citizens from the irresponsible print and online media and unethical and unprofessional journalistic reporting
Mission - Improvement of ethical and professional standards in the print and online media, by supervising the application of the Press Code, and by permanent education of journalists and the public about necessities to respect freedom of expression and responsible, professional reporting - Sustainable Press Council in Bosnia-Herzegovina as self-regulatory body for print and online media, recognized by the media industry and the public as a tool for protection of media freedom and professional journalism from political, economic or any other pressures that jeopardize freedom of informing
Values - First self-regulatory body for the print and online media in the Region of Western Balkan and SEE, whose establishment is supported by the BH print and online media industry and journalists’ community - Genuine in Bosnia-Herzegovina, registered at the state level - Has representatives of the media industry, public and journalists in its bodies - Has multiethnic structure - Decisions on the public complaints on unprofessional print and online media reporting, are adopted in accordance with the BH Press Code standards”
4. The right of the State to, within national borders, issue the license for work up to now nobody denies.
5. Allowed in democratic society.
6. Of course that I recommend, for the start: “corner stone”, ŠKOLEGIJUM: http://www.skolegijum.ba/; Editor in chief Prof. Dr. Nenad Veličković from Sarajevo, BiH – magazine that works on “literacy” of the public within the “empty shell” within educational politics on the all levels in Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless if we are talking about “Bosnian Muslims-Bosniaks“ schooling; “Croat” schooling and/or SSerb” schooling system.
7. Book “Media Democracy: How the media colonized politics”, author Thomas Meyer together with Lew Hinchman, Publisher Polity Press, 2002, UK, page 57.
8. Book “Visible Man and Spirit of Film”, 1924-1930, Publisher Berghahm, USA, in Association with Screen, September 2011 – http://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/BalazsEarly
9. Five things
12/ Sabahudin Hadžialić, Eurasia Review, USA – “World As Global Sin: Intermediaries Lead Dawn To Dusk – Essay (7.11.2016): http://www.eurasiareview.com/06112016-world-as-global-sin-intermediaries-lead-dawn-to-dusk-essay/