Chandrayaan-3: Yet Another Stride In India’s Space Aspirations Amidst Lingering Challenges – Analysis

By and

Against the backdrop of India’s unwavering determination to establish itself as a formidable player in the global space arena, the Chandrayaan-3 mission has emerged as a pivotal endeavor.

Following the mixed results of its predecessors, Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2, India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), geared up for another lunar exploration mission. Chandrayaan-1, launched in 2008, marked India’s debut in lunar exploration. The mission successfully confirmed the presence of water molecules on the moon’s surface, altering our understanding of Earth’s celestial companion. However, this triumph was accompanied by technical challenges that led to a premature end to the mission. The subsequent Chandrayaan-2 mission, launched in 2019, was intended to further this lunar exploration, encompassing an orbiter, lander, and rover. While the orbiter continues to provide valuable data, the lander’s hard landing and subsequent loss of the rover were a poignant reminder of the complexities inherent in space exploration.

Chandrayaan-3: Another Step in India’s Struggle for Cosmic

In a historic feat, India achieved a significant milestone on August 23, 2023, by becoming the first nation to successfully land a spacecraft near the lunar south pole. This achievement marked India as the fourth country, following the United States, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), and China, to achieve a soft landing on the Moon. The success of the Chandrayaan-3 mission stands as a testament to the unwavering dedication and brilliance of India’s scientists, showcasing the nation’s rapidly advancing space capabilities and cutting-edge technological prowess.

Beyond its immediate success, Chandrayaan-3’s accomplishment serves as a pivotal cornerstone for India’s ambitious space exploration endeavors. The mission’s triumph will significantly impact various aspects of India’s trajectory. Scientifically, it promises to advance our understanding of the Moon’s composition, geology, and potentially its history. This feat also paves the way for further international collaboration, enhancing India’s status as a spacefaring nation open to partnerships and shared discoveries.

Economically, the success of Chandrayaan-3 holds the potential for substantial gains. As the nation refines its space technology, it positions itself to harness economic benefits through commercial satellite launches, technology transfer, and potential future lunar resource utilization. However, alongside these optimistic prospects, the success story of Chandrayaan-3 is juxtaposed with a complex geopolitical landscape. The intensifying race for space dominance among nations underscores the intricate interplay of politics, power, and prestige beyond Earth’s boundaries. In essence, Chandrayaan-3’s achievement reverberates through various dimensions of India’s journey. It symbolizes not only scientific achievement but also resilience, collaboration, and technological advancement. As India propels forward with its grand aspirations in outer space, Chandrayaan-3’s success radiates far-reaching effects that extend to scientific progress, global partnerships, economic growth, and the intricate geopolitics that have now extended their reach into the cosmos.

ISRO’s Rising Stature in Space Amidst Global Competition

With the global spotlight firmly fixed on the cosmos, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is emerging as a potent force in the realm of space exploration. While the likes of NASA (USA), ROSCOSMOS (Russia), CNSA (China), and ESA (European Space Agency) have traditionally dominated discussions of space endeavors, ISRO’s recent achievements and future ambitions are commanding global attention. In the midst of escalating geopolitical rivalries that extend beyond our planet, ISRO has garnered recognition for both its scientific contributions and its unique reputation as a cost-effective and operationally adept space agency.

In an era marked by the urgency to mitigate the vulnerabilities of Earth’s resources due to resource depletion and the looming threat of global warming, the quest to reduce dependence on our home planet has hastened the race to explore the riches of outer space. At the forefront of this endeavor is the moon, particularly its enigmatic south pole – a dark and uncharted region that holds immense promise. Here, on this unexplored frontier, prospective lunar missions are poised to make transformative landings, and it is the remarkable achievement of Chandrayaan-3 that illuminates this evolution. Chandrayaan-3 not only signifies the growing accessibility of space but also stands as a critical player in the grand scheme of space resource utilization. By identifying valuable resources such as oxygen, water, and ice, Chandrayaan-3’s mission contributes significantly to the prospects of sustainable habitation beyond Earth. Its exploratory findings promise to revolutionize the field, aiding in prospecting, ground truth exploration, and enhancing our understanding of surrounding materials. Additionally, these revelations could inform the adoption of modified terrestrial industry standards and best practices, ensuring responsible exploration and reporting in this extraterrestrial domain.

Beyond lunar resource utilization, Chandrayaan-3’s accomplishments resonate through various sectors. The capabilities showcased by its successful landing can catalyze India’s reusable launch vehicle program and bolster its missile defense initiatives. Furthermore, this feat has the potential to make future missions more cost-effective, driving innovation while minimizing financial burdens. In essence, Chandrayaan-3 emerges as a beacon of progress, heralding a new era where space is not just a realm of curiosity but a frontier of practical resource exploration. By venturing into the uncharted realms of the moon’s south pole, it advances the trajectory of space exploration, making it more accessible, pragmatic, and promising for the betterment of humanity and our understanding of the universe.

ISRO’s Global Reach: International Collaboration in India’s Space Odyssey

From its inception, the Indian space program has woven threads of international cooperation into its missions, positioning India as an emerging space powerhouse known for achieving its objectives with speed and cost-efficiency. Presently, the ISRO is engaged in collaborative endeavors with approximately 60 countries, encompassing both developed and developing nations.

ISRO’s recent strides have expanded its global engagement, and its trajectory of success is exemplified by its lunar missions. Chandrayaan-1, ISRO’s inaugural lunar expedition, stands as a remarkable testament to international collaboration. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Chandrayaan-1 uncovered the presence of water molecules on the moon’s surface, an unprecedented achievement that rewrote our lunar understanding. This feat, achieved through the utilization of international payloads, illustrated ISRO’s prowess in harnessing collective knowledge for pioneering discoveries. As ISRO marches forward with Chandrayaan-3, the spirit of international cooperation continues to flourish. The ESA has played a pivotal role, contributing ground stations and deep space communication support, reinforcing ISRO’s commitment to collaborative exploration. This collective effort not only showcases India’s scientific acumen but also underscores the global nature of space exploration. ISRO’s journey is a narrative of unity in the pursuit of knowledge. By seamlessly integrating international expertise, ISRO has not only propelled India’s space endeavors but has also enriched the global understanding of space and its mysteries. The collaborative ethos that defines ISRO’s approach symbolizes a harmonious global effort to unravel the universe’s enigmas and augments the significance of Chandrayaan-3 as a beacon of international collaboration and scientific achievement.

US Dominance in Space: Government and Private Sectors Redefine the Frontier

The United States has historically stood as a vanguard in space exploration, boasting unparalleled technological prowess and economic might in the sector. While government entities like NASA have long fueled scientific progress, a transformative shift has unfolded as the role of US-based private firms takes center stage. These enterprises are now wielding increasing influence and actively reshaping the landscape of space activities. The historical trajectory of US space exploration underscores a legacy of scientific advancement propelled by NASA and other governmental interests. However, a paradigm shift is underway, driven by the ascent of private entities. This transition heralds a new era where private companies are not just complementing governmental efforts but are emerging as central players, steering innovation and investment.

Illustrating this transformation, the US government’s 2022 space budget stood at a staggering $62 billion, eclipsing the combined spending of $41 billion by all other governments. This financial commitment underscores the nation’s unwavering dedication to pushing the boundaries of exploration and knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, private firms, with their entrepreneurial spirit and burgeoning technological capabilities, are breathing fresh energy into the sector, prompting innovative approaches and fostering rapid advancements. In this dynamic ecosystem, the convergence of government interests and private enterprise is redefining the frontiers of possibility. As private firms leap forward with ambitious endeavors and the government continues to provide foundational support, the combined force has the potential to redefine humanity’s reach in space and unlock new realms of discovery. The United States’ preeminence in space exploration has evolved into a shared effort, uniting government initiatives with the dynamism of private enterprise. This synergy is reshaping the sector’s landscape and promises to usher in a new era of exploration, innovation, and scientific achievement.

The long-standing dominance of the United States in the realm of space exploration is encountering formidable challenges as other nations vigorously enter the cosmic arena. China, with a significant investment of $12 billion in 2022, is resolutely aiming to challenge, and even surpass, US space leadership by 2045. This concerted effort is underpinned by China’s strategic ambition to disrupt the US primacy on the global stage. China’s steadfast progress toward space supremacy is emblematic of a broader transformation in the global space landscape. The value of the global space economy has burgeoned, reaching an astonishing $546 billion in the second quarter of 2023, representing a remarkable 91 percent surge over the past decade. Nations around the world are fervently investing in their space agencies, with Japan, France, and Russia allocating $4.90 billion, $4.20 billion, and $3.42 billion respectively in 2022, underlining their commitment to pushing the boundaries of exploration. India, too, is asserting its space aspirations with remarkable vigor. Boasting a burgeoning industry featuring 140 space-related startups, India invested $1.90 billion in the previous year. This burgeoning growth trajectory anticipates India’s space industry to swell to a remarkable $13 billion by 2025, signifying not only economic growth but a firm foothold in the cosmic domain. In this rapidly evolving scenario, the traditional landscape of space exploration is experiencing seismic shifts. As nations vie for dominance and economic prosperity in the space sector, the global arena is becoming more competitive, dynamic, and innovative. The historic grip of the US is being redefined as other nations actively participate, each contributing their unique strengths and ambitions to humanity’s journey beyond Earth.

Chandrayaan-3’s Global Collaborations and India’s Ascent

With the triumphant Chandrayaan-3 mission, India has not only asserted its presence in the race for establishing a permanent lunar base but has also marked its readiness to venture into uncharted celestial realms. The New Space Policy, encapsulating missions like Aditya-L1 for solar study, Gaganyaan for human spaceflight, and upcoming Mars and interstellar expeditions, amplifies India’s grand ambitions. Meanwhile, China, a stalwart in the space domain, is strategically expanding its influence through international collaboration.

A noteworthy example is China and Russia’s joint declaration in 2021, outlining plans to construct a Moon base primed for crewed missions by 2036. By introducing the International Lunar Research Station (ILRS), they extended an invitation to other nations, challenging the American Artemis plan. While India refrained from joining the China-Russia initiative, it opted to align with the United States’ Artemis plan, signaling the nation’s calculated stance in the evolving landscape. As India’s space trajectory propels forward, it radiates a renewed commitment to exploration and discovery. The successful Chandrayaan-3 mission signifies India’s preparedness to delve into uncharted frontiers, while its participation in the American Artemis plan underscores the nation’s global collaborative approach. In a rapidly changing cosmic theatre, nations are strategically partnering to reshape the narrative of space exploration, symbolizing an era of shared ambition and knowledge pursuit.


In the vast expanse of space, the unfolding narrative of rivalry, cooperation, and geopolitical intricacies mirrors the age-old dynamics of human interaction, albeit on an unprecedented cosmic scale. As nations venture into the celestial arena to establish their influence, the principles of competition and collaboration are poised to transcend Earth’s bounds. Yet, the established framework provided by the United Nations Outer Space Treaty, while a foundational pillar, faces gaps in addressing the intricacies of our evolving cosmic journey. The absence of clear legislation governing resource utilization, ownership, and sovereignty claims underscores the need for a new paradigm. The challenges that loom ahead demand a carefully orchestrated, comprehensive approach that ensures planned exploration, effectiveness, sustainability, and ethical responsibility all while upholding the collective interests of humanity. In this pivotal juncture, the world stands at the cusp of a transformational endeavor. To forge a path forward that truly benefits all, the global community must rally together to formulate universally accepted rules that guide us through the cosmos. This endeavor transcends borders, ideologies, and divisions, uniting us in a shared mission to explore, understand, and harness the limitless potential of space in a manner that reflects the best of human values and aspirations.

About the authors:

  • Balinder Singh: Research Scholar and Academic. Ph.D. in Political Science, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamshala, India. Dr. Singh has actively participated in numerous national and international conferences and has published over 20 research articles in esteemed international journals.
  • Prof. (Dr.) Jagmeet Bawa: Professor and Head, Department of Political Science, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamshala, India. Dr. Bawa brings with him a rich experience of 15 years in teaching and research. His expertise lies in the domains of Indian Political System and Central Asian Politics. Prior to his current position, he taught for a decade at I K Gujral Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, India. Throughout his academic journey, he has guided ten students toward the successful completion of their Ph.D. degrees. Additionally, Dr. Bawa’s scholarly contributions extend to the realm of publications, with five books authored and over 30 research papers penned. His pursuit of academic excellence has taken him across various countries, where he has engaged in academic and research activities. Presently, his focus lies on Central Asian Politics, with four students currently pursuing their doctoral degrees under his guidance on this very subject.

Balinder Singh

Balinder Singh (PhD Scholar), Department Political Science, Central Univesity of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, India.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *